Conflict is a regular occurrence within human societies. Conflicts may include one individual or a group of individuals depending on the issue that sparked the conflict. The conflict may be solved in different ways, or it may escalate. In the case of a conflict between groups, it may escalate into a war comprising of several battles.
Definition of War
War is described as a period of armed conflict between distinct groups that are usually characterized by exceptionally violent behavior. Wars may take different forms such as asymmetric warfare and civil wars. Wars have occurred throughout human history with some of the most prolific examples being the First and Second World Wars which caused massive loss of life as well as the destruction of property.
Definition of Battle
Battles are defined as a fight between two military units representing different warring parties, and they are generally used to achieve certain objectives. A battle may last for a short period and involve a small number of forces which would result in not having a clear result. In such a case the battle is referred to as a skirmish. Some of history's most famous battles are the Battle of Gettysburg and the Battle of Waterloo. Despite the two terms being used interchangeably, wars and battles are different in some ways.
Differences in Duration
One of the factors that typically distinguishes a war from a battle is the length of time that they last.
Before the technological advancement of the 19th century, battles typically lasted a day or less than a day. Military historians have put forward some of the reasons why the battles usually continued for such a short period with one of the primary factors being the difficulty of conducting military operations during the night. Battles were typically held during the day as the soldiers preferred to make use of the available natural light to perform their operations. During the night, soldiers usually rested, tended to the sick, and made plans about the upcoming battles. Conducting battles during the night would also significantly disadvantage the soldiers as they would have to carry a source of light which would reveal their position to enemy fighters.
Another reason that battles lasted for short periods was the difficulty it would pose for the armies to replenish their supplies while in the battlefield. Due to the intense nature of most battles, armies usually used up vast quantities of supplies and needed to replace them regularly.
Wars may last for an extended period with some of the most prolonged wars lasting more than a century. Wars typically continue over an extended period due to the significant amount of resources dedicated to them. Armies are also able to make and implement better plans resulting in the wars lasting for an extended period.
Differences in Impact
Wars and battles are different since their outcomes have different effects on the conflict.
A victory in a single battle does not guarantee success to an army as the defeated army has a chance to recoup the loss with other battles. In some instances, the course of a war was determined by a single battle if the number of casualties on one side was significant. A large number of fatalities usually demoralized the surviving soldiers as they often thought that the enemy army had more soldiers and would achieve an easy victory.
The loss of war usually has much more significant implications for the losing side than the loss of a single battle. The losing side usually lost its independence or had sections if its territory taken away by the victors.
Differences in Strategies Employed
Military leaders typically employ different strategies for wars and battles as they usually have differing objectives.
Some factors determine the approach used during a battle such as the terrain of the land, the number of soldiers on each side, and the amount of equipment that the army has at its disposal. In several battles, commanders have employed strategies that would allow them to capture the highest ground thus giving their army an indisputable advantage. In other battles, military commanders may choose to use a strategy referred to as the battle of annihilation with the aim of crippling the enemy through one decisive victory.
The objective of every military leader during a war is to ensure that their side achieves victory and they employ strategies that will ensure their success. Several war strategies utilize battles as a distraction for some reasons such as allowing a more extensive section of the army to escape or to lure the enemy into a trap. An army may choose to lose some battles to lull the enemy into a false sense of security then attack hoping to achieve a decisive victory.
During a protracted war, the armies may choose to use a military tactic known as decapitation which cripples their enemy through targeting their leaders and regions of strategic importance. The decapitation strategy dramatically affects an army's chain of command if adequately implemented.
Differences in Number of Participants
Another factor that distinguishes wars from battles is the number of participants.
Typically, battles involved small groups of combatants who could easily be mobilized and controlled. The small number of participants also allowed the leaders to easily call for a retreat if their forces were being overwhelmed.
Wars have a larger number of participants as all the combatants engaging in various battles are also part of the war. Wars comprised of many different battles usually have more participants than the individual battles making up the war.
The Impact of War
One of the major effects of war is that it results in massive loss of life both among the soldiers and the civilians not involved in the war. The Second World War resulted in more fatalities than any other war in human history as more than 60 million people lost their lives; several estimates place the death toll at more than 80 million. The tactics employed during wars may also lead to the loss of property of great value. Wars also encourage innovations particularly in the field of weaponry as nations seek to gain an advantage over their enemies.