Canada covers much of the continent of North America and shares its borders with US state of Alaska, the Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, and the Arctic Ocean. Canada is the second largest country in the world by its total area. The country consists of eight forest regions and the highest number of lakes in the world (two million). The geography of Canada is characterized by boreal forests, Rocky Mountains, rivers, lakes, and diverse vegetation. Canada is subdivided into provinces and assumes administrative function in some of its territories. These territories are characterized by some of the highest peaks and points in the country. The highest points in the provinces and territories of Canada include:
Yukon is the smallest of the three Canadian territories and has the second least population of all provinces and territories (after Nunavut). The highest point in Canada, Mount Logan, is found within the Kluane National Park and Game Reserve. At 19,551 feet, Logan is the highest mountain in the country and the second highest in North America. It was named after Sir William Edmund Logan. The mountain is still rising in height due to the active tectonic uplifting. Mount Logan is the primary source of Hubbard and Logan Glacier and is characterized by extremely low temperatures. The attempt to rename the mountain by Prime Minister Jean Chretien was resisted by the Canadian geologists and mountaineers.
British Columbia is located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. Its rugged coastline stretches for more than 17,000 miles and covers the mountainous fjord and almost 6,000 islands. The highest point in the province is Mount Fairweather at an elevation of 15,325 feet above the sea level. The mountain is also the highest coastal mountain in the world with most of it lying in the Glacier Bay National Park and Reserve. Mount Fairweather was named by James Cook in 1778 because of the good weather that was encountered at the time. However, the mountain has harsh weather conditions receiving over 100 inches of precipitation annually.
Alberta is a province located in the western parts of Canada covering an area of about 250,000 square miles. The highest point in the province is 12,293 feet above the sea level at the summit of Mount Columbia. The mountain is located at the border between the provinces of Alberta and British Columbia, but its highest point lies within Jasper National Park in Alberta. Mount Columbia was named 1898 after the Columbia River which was also named after Columbia Rediviva, an American ship. The mountain was first ascended in 1902 by James Outram.
The Northwest Territories of Canada covers an area of about 442,000 square miles and is a portion of the old North-West Territory. The territory is characterized by the largest lake in Canada (outside of the Great Lakes), the deepest water body in North America as well as rivers and National Park. The highest point in Northwest Territories is 9,098 feet at Mount Nirvana. The mountain is part of Mackenzie Mountains and was first ascended in July 1965. The government of Canada refers to Mount Nirvana as unnamed peak despite the name appearing in several kinds of literature.
Nunavut is the newest and the largest territory of Canada by physical size. It was separated from the Northwest Territories in 1999. It covers a land area of 725,018 square miles and includes all the islands of Hudson Bay, James Bay, and Ungava. The highest point in Nunavut is 8,583 feet above the sea level at Barbeau Peak. The mountain is located within the Quttinirpaaq National Park. The mountain is characterized by deep and long crevasses and volatile weather. Barbeau Peak was first ascended in June 1967 as part of a field party. The mountain is also the highest in the Canadian Arctic.