3. Khartoum North
Khartoum Bahri, also known as Khartoum North, is the third largest city in Sudan with a population of 1,626,638. The city is located in the Khartoum state on the east bank of the Nile River and has the capital of Khartoum located directly to its south and the city of Omdurman directly to its west. The settlement of Halfayam where the current city of Khartoum Bahri sits, was the largest settlement at the confluence of the White Nile River and the Blue Nile River until 1821 when the Egyptians established the city of Khartoum and then was passed again in 1884 when Madhist Sudan set up Omdurman as its capital. It was not until after the Madhist War ended in 1898 that Khartoum Bahri started to grow since the southern terminus of the Sudan Military Railroad was completed the following year. This allowing Khartoum North to serve as the main railroad station and yard for the region and the city built up alongside the capital of Khartoum and the important cultural center of Omdurman as both of those cities were rebuilt and modernization occurred all around it. Khartoum Bahri is probably the most important industrial center in all of Sudan, as the city has various dockyards, marine workshops, rail workshops and sawmills, as well as being important in terms of trading food, livestock and cotton. The city also has is important in the brewing, brick-making, food processing and textile weaving industries as well as having chemical plants that supply various household products for the whole country.
Khartoum is the second largest city in Sudan, housing a population of 2,090,001. The city is not only the capital of the Khartoum state, but the capital of all of Sudan. The city is located in the center of the country and sits on at the point where the White Nile River and the Blue Nile River meet. The city was founded in 1821 shorty after Egypt had incorporated Sudan into its territory by Ibrahim Pasha (1789-1848) who was the son of Egypt's rule at the time, Muhammad Ali Pasha (1769-1849). The city grew into a regional center of trade but became a site for two bloody battles during the Mahdist War (1881-1899) when the Mahdist State of Sudan tried to break with Egypt. These battles where the Siege of Khartoum (1884-85) and the Battle of Omdurman in 1898. After the war Egypt and Britain, who had helped Egypt in the Madhist War, came to an agreement that Sudan would be administered by a governor-general from Egypt that would appointed with approval from the British, although in reality Sudan was effectively a British possession. Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899-1956) was ran this way until 1956 when Sudan gained its independence. The cities modern history has seen a lot of refugees and violence. Since the 1970's many refugees from neighboring countries have fled to the city to flee from conflict, civil war and genocide. The city has also had to deal with attacks from the Darfur rebel group, Justice and Equality, as well as dealing with its two of its own civil wars over the years. In recent years due to a surplus of wealth from the oil industry, the city has devoted a lot of time and money into massive development projects for Khartoum, including developing the central business district along with resident complexes, two five star hotels, a new airport for the city and two new bridges. The Souq Al Arabi is the cities largest open air market and the Afra Mall is a recently new hub for the locals to shop at. The city is home to the Ethnographic Museum, the Republican Palace Museum and the National Museum of Sudan, which is the largest in the country. The city is also home to two Sudanese Premiere League clubs, Al Khartoum SC and Al Ahli SC.
Omdurman is the largest city in Sudan, with its population totaling 2,395,159 residents. The city is located in the Khartoum state and actually sits almost directly opposite the capital of Khartoum on the western banks of the Nile River. Know ones knows who or when the village was founded but it first became important in 1884 when the Mahdi, Muhammad Ahmad (1844-85) decided to setup his military headquarters in the town during the Mahdist War. After the Mahdi died, one of his successor's, the Khalifa, 'Abdullahi ibn Muhammad decided to make the city the capital of Madhist Sudan (1885-99). The city grew quickly and a tomb was erected to the Mandi but in September of 1898 the Brits defeated and killed the Khalifa in the Battle of Omudrmen in which the city was mostly destroyed and the Mahdi's tomb was ordered to be destroyed. The city of Omdurman is the unofficial cultural capital of the country and the city has been mentioned in various poems and songs as being a national icon for diversity and nationalism. The city is home to several well known art and music facilities, including the National Theater, Al-Araya Theater, The Higher Institute for Music and Theater, and the Qasr Alshabab o Alatfal (Youth and Kids Palace). The city is also well known for its several outdoor multicultural souqs (markets), as well as a fish market on the banks of the Nile River. A important tourist destination is the Khalifa House Museum, which was built in two stages in 1887 and 1891, as well as the completely rebuilt and refurbished Tomb of the Mandi. The city is also home to three different Sudanese Premiere League clubs, Al-Hilal Club, Al-Merrikh SC and Al-Mourada SC.
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