Most Important Battles In Chinese History

The Song forces of Emperor Zhao Bing (left) fell to Kublai Khan's (right) Mongols in the Battle of Yamen.
The Song forces of Emperor Zhao Bing (left) fell to Kublai Khan's (right) Mongols in the Battle of Yamen.

China is the world's most populous nation with a current population of 1.381 billion. Beijing is its capital city. Historically, China was governed by hereditary monarchies known as dynasties. Fierce battle emerged over the years between the monarchies. The last one was the Qing Dynasty which was replaced by the Republic of China.

Battle of Zhuolu

The Battle of Zhuolu was fought in 2500 BC. It pitted the tribes of Yanhuang led by the yellow emperor and Jiuli tribes led by Chiyuou and was fought in Zhuolu near the border of the present-day Hebei and Liaoning. The yellow emperor tribes merged with Yan emperor’s tribes and formed the Yanhuang tribe which rose to power on the plains of Guangzhou. They settled along the Yellow river towards the East China Sea where the Jiuli tribes were developed, and a conflict on the fertile plains of the Yellow River emerged between the tribes. The Jiuli first attacked the Yan emperor driving them towards the Yellow Emperor’s Lands which angered the yellow emperor, and he declared war against the Jiuli. The Yanhuang tribes eventually emerged victoriously and killed Chi You.The Jiuli were chased from central China while the Yellow Emperor built his capital in Zhuolu. The battle shaped the Chinese history as the Chinese refer themselves either as Yan or Huang descendants.

Battle of Kunyang

The battle of Kunyangt was fought in 23 AD in Kunyang. It was fought by the Lulin forces led by Liu Xing and Xin forces led by Wang Yi and Wang Xun. Wang Mang overthrew the Han Dynasty and took over China. However, he was incompetent, and a majority of his subjects all over the country rebelled against him. The leaders of the rebellion, Lulin, supported Liu Xuan to be the emperor of the new Han Dynasty. Wang Man decided to Suppress and crush the new Han regime before it gained momentum. The Xin forces approached Kunyang from the North in overwhelmingly large numbers. The Lulin forces fought until a backup of 10,000 soldiers arrived boosting their morale. One of Xing’s commanders, Wang Xun, was killed in a foolish daring attack with a small army contingent. The defeat forced Xin forces to retreat and finally collapse. When the news of the battle spread, people rose simultaneously and killed all the government officials and China was brought back to Han dynasty.

Battle of Yangxia

The Battle of Yangxia was fought in 1911 at Hankou and Hanyang between the loyalist armies of the Qing Dynasty and the proponents of the Wuchang Uprising. The war rose after the revolutionaries launched an uprising against the reigning dynasty and seized the cities o Hankou and Hanyang and made Li Yuanghong their leader. The Qing’s army had a numerical advantage as well as superior arms, and they crushed the revolutionaries after a heavy and bloody fighting which lasted 41 days. The Qing army managed to repossess the two cities. However, the battle gave time and boosted the morale of other rebels in all the other provinces to strengthen and defy the Qing dynasty. The fight ended when the commander of Qing forces, Gen. Yuan Shikai agreed to a ceasefire and agreed to peace talks leading to the end of the Qing Dynasty and the formation of a unity government for the Republic of China.

Battle of Fei River

The Fei River no longer exists but is believed to have flowed through Anhui. The battle was fought in 383 AD and was fought by the former Qin army and the Eastern Jin dynasty. The Former Qin was rose quickly under the leadership of the ambitious Fu Jian and in 379 AD it acquired the strategic Xiangyang city. By 381, he had conquered all of northern China and started invading the South. The Jin army attempted to recover Xiangyang to no avail and Fu Jian retaliated by sending a massive army to fight the Jin army. The former Qin army was made of many people who were untrained and was easily defeated by a smaller and more disciplined Jin army.

Battle of Yamen

The Battle of Yamen was fought in 1279 between the Song Dynasty and the Yuan dynasty of the Mongol Empire. The Song dynasty was led by the young emperor Zhao Shi for nine years after his father was captured. The Yuan dynasty had a small well-disciplined army and managed to defeat the Song dynasty and took over Yamen. The leader of Yuan dynasty, Kublai Khan, together with his descendants, led China for the next 97 years until the rise of the Ming dynasty.

Most Important Battles In Chinese History

Most Important Battles in Chinese History Date
Battle of Zhuolu circa 2500 BC
Battle of Gaixia 202 BC
Battle of Kunyang 23 AD
Battle of Fei River November, 383 AD
Battle of Yamen March 19th, 1279
Battle of Shanhai Pass May 27th, 1644
Battle of Yangxia October-December of 1911
Soviet Invasion of Manchuria August of 1945
Fall of Chengdu December of 1949
Battle of the Kumsong River July of 1953
Battle of Cao Bang February and March of 1979

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