China is an East Asian nation. It is the second largest Asian state by area after Russia. China is the most populous nation in Asia with its citizens representing about 31.35% of all the people living in Asia. East Asian is the cradle of various civilizations including the Mongol Empire, ancient Korea, ancient Japan, and ancient China. China is one of the oldest cultures on earth which emerged in Yellow River’s fertile basin in the North China Plains. China has influenced the region for centuries since it was the leading civilization in East Asia that exerted its influence and prestige on other East Asian states.
Geography of China
China is one of the largest countries in the world and it occupies an area of about 3,700,000 square miles. China has jurisdiction over 4 directly-controlled municipalities (Chongqing, Shanghai, Tianjin, and Beijing), 5 autonomous regions, 22 provinces, and the special areas of Macau and Hong Kong. China has the longest land border on earth measuring about 13,743 miles from Tonkin Gulf to River Yalu. China’s terrain is quite diverse and vast ranging from the subtropical forests in the southern parts of the country to Taklamakan and Gobi deserts in the north. China is separated from the Central and South Asian states by the Tian Shan, Pamir, Karakoram, and the Himalaya mountain ranges. China is home to some of the longest rivers in the world (Yellow and Yangtze rivers) which stretch from the Tibetan Plateau to the eastern seaboard. China is bounded by South China, East China, Yellow, and Bohai seas plus it has a 9,000 mile-long coast with the Pacific Sea.
The Chinese have had one of the biggest economies on earth for the last two thousand years which has experienced a cycle of decline and prosperity. Since the 1978 economic reforms, the country has evolved into one of the most significant players in international trade with a highly diversified economy. Some of the most competitive industries in China include banking, telecommunications, e-commerce, automobiles, and mining among others. China has the second-biggest economy on earth by nominal GDP. The Chinese economy has been the biggest in the world by PPP (purchasing power parity) since 2014. China has over 3.5 million millionaires and 338 billionaires. The Chinese government has brought many people out of poverty than any other government in the world. The number of Chinese living in extreme poverty reduced from 756 million (1990) to 25 million (2013) individuals.
Demography and Languages
China is the most populous state on earth with over 1.4 billion people. According to the 2010 national census, China had a population of over 1,370,536,875 people. About 13.26% of the population was over 60 years old, 70.1% between 15 to 59 years old, and 16.6% below 14 years old. The country recognized 56 ethnic groups with the biggest being the Han Chinese. The Han Chinese is the biggest single ethnic group in the world making up over 91.51% of the total Chinese population. There are over 292 living languages used in China with the most commonly used belonging to the Sino-Tibetan language family. The most commonly spoken language in China is Mandarin (used by over 70% of the population).