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Mongolia History Timeline

Mongolia's Information

Flag of Mongolia
Land Area 1,553,556 km2
Water Area 10,560 km2
Total Area 1,564,116km2 (#18)
Population 3,031,330 (#138)
Population Density 1.95/km2
Government Type Semi-presidential Republic
GDP (PPP) $37.00 Billion
GDP Per Capita $12,200
Currency Tugrik (MNT)
Largest Cities
1200 - 1300
  • (1206) Genghis Khan assembled political and military council of Mongol and Turkic chiefs, handed down codification of laws and reforms
  • (1206 - 1263) Genghis Khan launched conquest campaign of Mongol tribes following their unification; Khan's sons and grandsons created the Mongol Empire, world's largest land empire
  • (1227) Genghis Khan died in his sleep
  • (1237 - 1238) Grandson of Genghis Khan, Batu Khan, invaded Russia
  • (1237 - 1240) Mongols conquered Russian lands
  • (1238) Mongols conquered Vladimir, Russia
  • (1240) Mongols destroyed Kiev
  • (1267 - 1368) The Khan empire imploded after weakening from disunity; Mongols were ousted out of Dadu (Beijing) by Ming troops
  • (1368 - 1600) Mongols were confined to their original homeland
  • (1380) Russian Prince Dmitry Donskoy defeated Golden Horde; Mongol capital of Karakorum destroyed by Ming troops
1600 - 1800
  • (1619) Several Mongol tribes defected their allegiance from Ligdan Khan to Manchu people
  • (1632) Ligdan evaded Manchus, conquered Gelug in Tibet (China)
  • (1634) Ligdan died at Qinghai Lake in Tibet
  • (1636) Manchu (Qing) empire conquered southern Mongols, created Inner Mongolia
  • (1691) Northern Mongols offered protection by Qing empire, created Outer Mongolia
  • (1727) Treaty of Kyakhta established western border between Russian and Manchu empires; Qing had dominion over Mongolia and Tuva
  • (1757 - 1758) Western Mongols (or Oirats) were virtually annihilated during Qing conquest of Dzungaria
  • (1800s) Qing Dynasty maintained control of Mongolia
1900s
  • (1906) Russian troops seized portions of Mongolia
  • (1907) Sinification (spread of Chinese culture) policies implemented by Qing government
  • (1911) Qing Dynasty fell; Outer Mongolia declared independence
  • (1911) Bogdo Khanate of Mongolia was proclaimed, Bogd Khan enthroned as the Great Khan (Emperor)
  • (1912) Russian Empire recognized independence of Mongolia
  • (1913) Tibet and Mongolia established treaty of mutual recognition and assistance
  • (1915) Russia, China and Mongolia signed treaty establishing China as sovereign over Mongolia
  • (1919) Chinese Army occupied Outer Mongolia
  • (1920) Mongolian People's Party founded by Mongolian revolutionaries
  • (1921) Russian Army drove Chinese out of Mongolia
  • (1921) Mongolian People's Government established
  • (1921) Mongolia declared independence from China
  • (1924) Mongolian People's Republic was proclaimed
  • (1928) Communist leader Khorloogiin Choibalsan rose to power
  • (1928 - 1932) "Rightists" in support of private enterprise were ousted, "Leftists" who wanted communes were ousted, counter-revolutionary uprising against confiscation of monastery property was suppressed
  • (1932) Collectivization failed, widespread uprisings took place
  • (1936) Mongol Prince Demchugdongrub formed Mongol Military government in Inner Mongolia
  • (1937) Mongol Military Government renamed Mongol United Autonomous Government
  • (1937) Stalinist purges began, monasteries were destroyed, more than 30,000 people, including lamas, were killed
  • (1937) Prime Minister Genden arrested and shot in Russia on charges of spying for Japan
  • (1937) Minister of War, Marshal Demid, was poisoned while on-board a Trans-Siberian train
  • (1939) In Battle of Halhyn Gol (Nomonhan), Mongolian and Soviet troops led by General Zhuko defeated Japanese and Manchukuo forces
  • (1939) Truce negotiated between Soviet Union and Japan
  • (1939) Khorloogiin Choibalsan appointed prime minister
This page was last updated on April 7, 2017.

Mongolia Trivia

What is a Puppet Government?

A "puppet state" is a government that has little will of its own, as it needs financial backing or military support. Thus, it acts an a subordinate to another power in exchange for its own survival. The puppet government still holds its own facade of an identity, perpetuated by retaining its own flag, name, national anthem, law, and constitution. However, these type of governments are not considered as legitimate according to international law.

What Is A Puppet Government?

About the Author

John Moen is a cartographer who along with his wife are the orignal founders of worldatlas.com. He and his wife, Chris Woolwine-Moen, produced thousands of award-winning maps that are used all over the world and content that aids students, teachers, travelers and parents with their geography and map questions. Today, it's one of the most popular educational sites on the web.

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