The National Flag of Paraguay was officially adopted on November 25, 1842.
The National Flag of Paraguay features three equal, horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue with an emblem centered in the white band. The flag of Paraguay contains different designs on its obverse (front) and reverse (back) sides, which makes it unique among the country flags. The obverse side of the flag of Paraguay (hoist side at the left) bears the national coat of arms. Inside the coat of arms, there is a yellow five-pointed star within a green wreath of two olive branches; capped by the words “REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY”, all within the two circles. The reverse (hoist side at the right) bears a circular seal of the treasury, featuring a yellow lion, in front of a staff and a red Cap of Liberty with the inscription “PAZ Y JUSTICIA” (Peace and Justice). The red color of the flag symbolizes bravery and patriotism. The white color represents integrity and peace. The blue color denotes liberty and generosity. The flag is modeled after the colors and shape of the French Tricolore, and collectively it represents liberation. The Sun of May in the centered crest is considered a symbol of freedom. The flag has a width-to-length ratio of 3:5
Throughout its history, Paraguay has used a number of different flags. The first flag used by the country was adopted in 1811. It was a blue background with a single white star in the top left corner. Then, a flag with horizontal stripes of green, white, and blue was adopted. One year later in 1812, the flag’s stripes were changed to red, yellow, and blue. In 1812, Paraguay adopted its current pattern of red, white, and blue. The coat of arms was added in its first form in 1842. From 1990 onwards, Paraguay used a flag that very closely resembled the flag that is used today.
The Paraguay Coat of Arms is unusual because it has a front and reverse side. The front side is round, with a white background and red border. The red border bears the official name of Paraguay (“REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY”). To the left is a green palm branch and to the right a green olive branch. In the middle there is a five-point yellow star. The Reverse of the Coat of Arms features a lion, in front of a staff and liberty cap, with the inscription "Paz Y Justicia", which means "Peace and Justice". The reverse of the seal is used by the Supreme Court of Paraguay, and is featured alongside the obverse on banknotes of the national currency, the Guaraní and the reverse side of the flag.
"Paz Y Justicia" (“Peace and Justice”)
"Himno Nacional Paraguayo" is the national anthem of Paraguay. It is still unknown as to who had created the original music of the anthem (some sources say, Francisco José Debali, the composer of Uruguay's anthem). However, Remberto Giménez, a Paraguayan composer, had rearranged and developed the current version of the anthem. The lyrics of the anthem have been authored by Francisco Esteban Acuña de Figueroa. The anthem was officially adopted in 1846.
A los pueblos de América, infausto
tres centurias un cetro oprimió,
Mas un día soberbio surgiendo,
¡Basta!, dijo … y el cetro rompió.
Nuestros padres, lidiando, grandiosos,
ilustraron su gloria marcial,
y trozada la augusta diadema,
enalzaron el gorro triunfal.
¡Paraguayos, República, o muerte!
Nuestro brío nos dio libertad:
ni opresores, ni siervos alientan
donde reinen unión e igualdad.
donde reinen unión e igualdad.
Nueva Roma, la Patria ostentara
dos caudillos de nombre y valer,
que rival, cual Romulo y Remo
dividieron gobierno y poder.
Largos años, cual Febo entre nubes
vióse oculta la perla del Sud,
hoy un Héroe grandioso aparece
realzando su gloria y virtud …
Con aplauso la Europa y el Mundo
la saludan y aclaman también
de heroísmo baluarte invencible,
de riquezas magnifico Edén.
Cuando en torno rugió la Discordia
que otros pueblos fatal devoró,
paraguayos; el suelo sagrado,
con sus alas un ángel cubrió.
¡Oh, cuán pura, de lauro ceñida,
dulce patria, te ostentas así!
En tu enseña se ven los colores
del zafiro, diamante y rubí.
En tu escudo que el sol ilumina
bajo el gorro se mira al león.
Doble imagen de fuertes y libres
y de glorias, recuerdo y blasón.
De la tumba del vil feudalismo
se alza libre la patria Deidad;
opresores ¡doblad la rodilla!,
compatriotas ¡el Himno entonad!
Suene el grito: ¡República o muerte!
Nuestros pechos lo exhalen con fe
y sus ecos repiten los montes,
cual gigantes poniéndose en pie.
Libertad y Justicia defiende
nuestra Patria, ¡Tiranos, oíd!
De sus fueros la carta sagrada
su heroísmo sustenta en la lid.
Contra el mundo si el mundo se opone,
si intentare su prenda insultar,
batallando vengarla sabremos
¡Oh, abrazados con ella expirar!
Alza, oh, pueblo, tu espada esplendente
que fulmina destellos de Dios,
no hay más medio que libre o esclavo
y un abismo divide a los dos.
En las auras el himno resuene,
repitiendo con eco triunfal:
¡A los Libres, perinclita gloria!
¡A La Patria, laurel inmortal!
For three centuries a reign oppressed
The unhappy peoples of America,
But one day, their anger aroused, they said:
“An end to this!” and broke the reign.
Our forefathers, fighting magnificently,
Displayed their martial glory,
And when the august diadem was shattered,
They raised the triumphal cap of liberty.
Paraguayans, Republic or death!
It was our strength that gave us our final liberty.
Neither tyrants nor slaves can continue,
Where unity and equality reign,
Where unity and equality reign.
A new Rome, the Fatherland shall proudly display
Two leaders of name and valor
Who, rivals, like Romulus and Remus
Divided government and power.
Long years, during which Phoebus in the clouds
Saw darken the pearl of the South,
Today a grand hero appears
Raising up again her glory and virtue…
Europe and the world salute her with applause
And also acclaim
Invincible bastion of heroism,
Magnificent Eden of riches.
(But) when discord rumbled all around
Which fatally devoured other Peoples,
Paraguayans, the sacred ground
Was covered by an angel with its wings.
Oh, how pure, of laurel girded
Sweet Fatherland, in this manner you show yourself.
In your ensign one sees the colors
Of sapphire, diamond, and ruby.
In your coat of arms, which the Sun illuminates,
Under the cap, one sees the lion.
Double image of the strong and the free,
And of glories, the memory and crest.
From the tomb of vile feudalism
The national Deity rises free;
Oppressors, bend your knees!
Compatriots, entone the hymn!
Sound the cry, “Republic or death”!
Our breasts exhale it with faith,
And the mountains repeat its echoes
Like giants arising.
Our Fatherland defends liberty and justice;
The laws in its sacred charter
Will sustain its heroism in the fight.
Against the world, if the world opposes it,
If the world dares to insult her security,
Battling to avenge we shall know her
Or die embracing her.
Arise, oh People, your splendid sword
That strikes with sparkles of God,
There is no middle ground between free or slave
And an abyss divides the two.
In the gentle breezes the Hymn resounds,
Repeating with triumphal echo:
For the free, renowned glory!
For the Fatherland, immortal laurel!
The current official currency of Paraguay is Guarani (₲, PYG). The Guaraní is made up of 100 units called centimos. However, due to inflation the use of centimos was abolished.
Coins were first issued in the country in 1944. They were made of aluminium-bronze and came in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 centimos. They were all round in shape. In 1953, the second batch of coins were issued without the inclusion of the 1 and 5 centimo coins. They were also made of aluminium-bronze but their scallop shape distinguished them from the first batch. In 1975 there was introduction of guarani coins that were round shaped and minted in stainless steel. They were in denominations of 1 guarani, 5 guaranies, 10 guaranies and 50 guaranies. From 1990, the coins minted in Paraguay are made of nickel-brass. Rising inflation in the country has led to the decline in the use of centimo coins and mintage of new coins in denominations of 100 guaranies, 500 guaranies and 1000 guaranies.
Guarani was first used to replace pesos on notes in 1943, with the guarani being over-stamped on the existing peso notes. Printing of the current guarani notes followed thereafter in denominations of 1 PYG, 5 PYG, 10 PYG, 50 PYG, 100 PYG, 500 PYG and 1,000 PYG. The De La Rue Company was given the tender. The notes were redesigned in 1963 and new bills of 5,000 and 10,000 guaranies were added. Later, notes with a value of less than 500 guaranies were abolished due to inflation.
In 1990s, 50,000 and 100,000 guarani bills were introduced. Since 2004, all the notes have undergone some modifications. Currently, the notes in use are in denominations of 2,000, 5,000, 10,000, 20,000, 50,000 and 100,000 PYG. The printing is currently done by more than one printing company.
The peso was the currency initially used in Paraguay. On October 5, 1943, the country enacted a law to introduce the guarani as a replacement for the peso. The ratio in which the guarani replaced the peso was 1:100. The first guaranies were issued in 1944, and from 1960 to 1985, the value of the guarani compared to the USD was estimated at 126 PYG against $1.