The President of the Republic of Finland serves as the country's head of state, and according to the Constitution of Finland, shares executive power with the Finnish Government. The president is elected by universal suffrage to serve a six-year term, and can serve for a maximum of two consecutive terms. For much of its modern history, Finland was governed by a semi-presidential system in which the president exercised unlimited authority over domestic and foreign policies. However, in the late 20th century, the constitution was amended to limit the powers of the president, but the president's role as commander-in-chief remained unchanged. Elections are held on the third Sunday of January during the election year. The election process is two-staged, although a candidate can win in the first round by winning more than 50% of the votes. If a winner is not determined during the first round of voting, then the top two candidates compete in a runoff. Additionally, if there is only one presidential candidate, then the candidate becomes president by default, and no election is required. The President appoints the Prime Minister, who serves as the head of government.
Official Residences of the President of Finland
The President of Finland can choose to live in one of three official residences: the Presidential Palace (Helsinki), Mäntyniem (Helsinki), and Kultaranta (summer residence in Naantali).
The Presidential Palace is one of three official residences of the President of Finland. Located in Helsinki, Finland's cpital, the original building was constructed between 1816–1820, and further modifications were made between 1843 and 1845. Between 1845 and 1915, it became the Imperial Palace, although it was never regularly inhabited. Between 1915 and 1918, the building served several purposes, including a temporary military hospital during the First World War. In 1919, Finland passed a new constitution that created the Presidential office, and the Imperial Palace was then converted into the Presidential Palace and office. Between 2012 and 2014, the building was renovated at cost of 45 million euros.
Located in Helsinki, Mäntyniemi is also an official residence of the President of Finland. Construction of the residence was completed in 1993, and since then four presidents have lived there. Mäntyniemi is the first residence to be constructed specifically for the president. The site contains three buildings: the main house, which includes the president's living quarters, offices, and reception rooms; an outbuilding; and a small gatehouse.
Kultaranta is the official summer residence of the President of Finland. The residence is located on the island of Luonnonmaa, in the town of Naantali, and the manor house is situated on 54 hectares of land that has been converted to a park. The house was initially built for Finnish industrialist Alfred Kordelin in 1914, but after his death in 1917, it was transferred to the University of Turku. In 1922, the Finnish Parliament voted to purchase the property and use it as the official presidential summer residence.