The Texas Revolution was a war fought between 1835 and 1836 where Texas colonists wage war against the Mexican government resulting in the independence of Texas. Mexican had a belief that the war was instigated by the United States and therefore, the country Congress enacted the Tornel Decree that declared any foreign fighter putting up arms against Mexican soldiers would be considered the pirates and have to face the harshest military actions. Texas was the only province that managed to gain independence from Mexico and successfully join the USA.
Causes of the Revolution
The Texas Revolution started in October 1835 as a result of cultural and political disagreements between the large population of settlers from America and the Mexican government. Following the centralization of the Mexican government and increased limitation of citizens’ rights, the American colonists and the Tejanos (Mexican Americans) combined forces to fight the Mexican government with the support of the United States. Although the revolution was preceded by the battles of Gonzales and San Jacinto, the conflicts and turmoil that had pitted the Anglo-American immigrants and the Tejanos against the troops of Mexico started intermittently from 1826.
The Battle of Gonzales
The Battle of Gonzales resulted in the first casualties of the Texas Revolution. The battle resulted from disputes over a cannon loaned by the Mexican military to the citizens of Gonzales for protection. As tensions rose between the two groups, the Mexican government decided to take back the cannon. The residents of Gonzales thought the decision was part of a bigger ploy by the Mexican government and military, and staged an ambush on the morning of October 2, 1835. Although it is thought to be more of a small skirmish than a battle, it was declared as a victory for the Texan colonists, and flared the confidence of Americans who came to join in the fight.
The Battle of the Alamo
On February 23, 1836 the Mexican Army advanced on the 100 Texan soldiers garrisoning the the Alamo, a mission and fortress compound in San Antonio, Texas. The Texan soldiers were unable to defend the garrison, and all were killed in the subsequent takeover. The Battle of the Alamo is considered one of the most important battles of the Texas Revolution as the defeat of the Alamo caused a large influx of soldiers into the Texan army.
The Battle of San Jacinto
The determining battle of the Texas Revolution was the Battle of San Jacinto during which the Texan army, led by General Sam Houston and bolstered by the defeat at the Alamo, defeated the Mexican army lead by General Santa Anna. The battle, which took place on April 21, 1836 and lasted just 18 minutes, resulted in the capture of Santa Anna and the subsequent signing of a peace treaty promising the withdrawal of the Mexican army from the region. The battle and the ensuing peace treaty paved the way for the independence of the Republic of Texas from Mexico.
Aftermath of the Revolution
The main result of the Texas Revolution is the establishment of the Republic of Texas under the leadership of Sam Houston as the first president. Houston later became Governor and Senator when the Republic of Texas joined as one of the American states. Although the war resulted in many military and civilian casualties, the revolution gave courage to other dissatisfied communities to demand for their rights.