A Brief Overview
The Republic of Uzbekistan is one of the two double locked countries in the world. It is bordered by the five landlocked countries of Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Afghanistan, and Turkmenistan. It is a presidential constitutional republic with the president heading both the state and the government. The executive powers are with the government while the legislative power is with the two chambers of the Supreme Assembly. The judiciary is made up of the Supreme Court, the Constitutional Court, and the Higher Economic Court. The government of Uzbekistan ensures guidance over the effective functioning of the country’s economy, implementation of the law, and social and cultural development.
The Government of Uzbekistan has its legal basis in the Constitution of Uzbekistan. The government is in three levels: the Executive, Legislative, and Judicial branch. The 1992 constitution officially created a separation of power among the three arms of government. Although the names of government institution have changed since independence in 1991, the institutions are still similar to the ones that existed before the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The major roles of the government include ensuring progressive economic, social, and cultural growth and implementation of the laws and policies of the Supreme Assembly.
The Executive Branch Of The Government Of Uzbekistan
The executive branch comprises of the president, the premier, ministers, and deputy ministers. The president is elected for a five-year term by popular vote in a free and fair election. He or she appoints the prime minister and deputy minister who form part of his cabinet. The president is granted supreme executive powers by the constitution. He or she also has the power to appoint judges of the national courts, declare war or a state of emergency, and to dissolve the parliament. The executive branch remains the most powerful branch of government with some of the executive decrees superseding some democratic features in the constitution. The president, prime minister, ministers, and deputy ministers forms the Cabinet of Ministers are responsible for the effective functioning of the country.
The Legislative Branch Of The Government Of Uzbekistan
The legislative branch of the Uzbekistan Government is referred to as the Oliy Majlis, or the Supreme Assembly. The Supreme Assembly succeeded the Supreme Soviet in 1995 and remained unicameral until January 2005. The parliament has 150 members in the Legislative Chamber and 100 members of the Senate elected from territorial constituencies and at the session of districts respectively for a five-year term. 84 members of the Senate are elected directly while 16 are appointed by the president. Both the Legislative Chamber and the Senate are headed by Chairmen who do not have a term limit. The legislature meets only a few days in a year and has little powers to shape the law since the power is with the executive branch.
The Judicial Branch Of The Government Of Uzbekistan
The judicial branch of the Uzbekistan Government is made up of the Supreme Court, the Constitutional, and Higher Economic Courts. The courts exercise the judicial powers although the powers have been overshadowed by the executive branch. The judiciary lacks independence since the president has the powers to appoint and dismiss the judges of the national court.
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