Ukraine is a sovereign country in Eastern Europe with a population of about 43 million people. The country is a unitary republic under a semi-presidential system. The country exercises separation of power with three levels of government: legislative, executive, and judiciary. Ukraine operates under a multi-party system. The president and the government hold the executive power while the legislature is vested in the parliament. The politics of the country has been categorized as over-centralized and associated to the legacy of the Soviet Union and caused by the fear of separatism.
The Executive Branch Of The Government Of Ukraine
The highest body of Ukraine's executive power, the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine was formed on April 18, 1991, by the Law of Ukrainian SSR No.980-XII. The cabinet is made up of five individuals and several ministers representing the various ministries. The vice prime ministers head some of the ministries. The president appoints the premier who must be confirmed by the parliament. The prime minister in consultation with the president nominates members to the cabinet who are also approved by the parliament. The Presidium of Cabinet is composed of the prime minister, first vice prime minister, and other vice prime ministers. The premier presides over the Cabinet. The Cabinet is answerable to the president and is held accountable by the parliament.
The duties and functions of the Cabinet are described in Article 116 of the Ukrainian Constitution. The members of the cabinet are exempted from judgments against them and are not allowed to combine their official activities and personal work. The cabinet issues orders that are mandatory for execution and also participates in parliamentary discussions. The cabinet must be dismissed if the prime minister resigns. The parliament can also dismiss a cabinet minister through a vote during a parliamentary session. The state agencies with a particular status under the direct coordination with the cabinet ministers also exercise the executive power in Ukraine. These agencies include Anti-Monopoly Committee of Ukraine, State Property Fund of Ukraine, and the National Agency for Prevention of Corruption.
The Legislative Branch Of The Government Of Ukraine
The legislature in Ukraine is administered by the Parliament of Ukraine known as Verkhovna Rada. The parliament consists of 450 deputies elected by equal and universal suffrage. Each of the deputies is allowed to have up to 31 assistants with four of them allowed to be admitted into the secretariat of the parliament. The deputies enjoy parliamentary immunity and enjoy free housing, free transportation, and free medical services. They are required to take oath in parliament before discharging their duties. The deputies elect from the members the Chairman (Speaker), First Deputy Chairman, and Deputy Chairman. The Verkhovna Rada keeps the executive under check and approves executive appointments. The parliament also formulates policies and debate bills concerning the country.
The Judicial Branch Of The Government Of Ukraine
The judiciary in Ukraine is independent in principle. However, in practice, there is no separation between the political power and the judiciary. The judiciary consists of four levels of courts of general jurisdiction including local courts, the Court of Appeal, high courts, Supreme Court, and constitutional court. The president appoints the judges upon the nomination by the Supreme Council of Justice. The Congress of Judges is the highest judicial body and is responsible for the enforcement of the decision by the Congress
The Local Government Of Ukraine
Ukraine has 24 administrative divisions (Oblasts) which are further divided into subdivisions known as the raions. The Cabinet of Ministers nominates the heads of local government who are then appointed by the president. The heads of governments serve as representative to the central government. The local government is charged with the responsibility of planning and budgeting, managing of municipal property, promoting social welfare, and managing social amenities at the local level.