What Type Of Government Does Thailand Have?

The National Assembly of Thailand.
The National Assembly of Thailand.

The Kingdom of Thailand is located at the center of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. The country has a population of over 65 million people and covers an area of 198,000 square miles. Vehicular traffic in Thailand drives on the left. The country is a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary democracy. The government of Thailand is a unitary government with the country emerging as a modern state after the the founding of the Chakri Dynasty in 1782. The constitutional monarchy replaced the absolute monarchy after the Revolution of 1932. Thailand has been ruled by a succession of military leaders after a coup d’etat. The country has been ruled by a military junta since 2014 and has had 17 constitutions in its history. However, the basic government structure has remained the same with the government composed of executive, legislature, and the judiciary.

The Monarchy Of Thailand

Although the sovereignty of Thailand is vested in the people, the king exercises sovereignty through the three branches of government. The constitution limits the powers of the king, but he remains a key figure in Thailand. He is the head of state and has plays some roles in the functions of the government. He is the head of the Thai forces and defender of all faith despite being required to be a Buddhist. He is also the head of the House of Chakri, Thailand’s ruling house. The official home of the monarch is known as the Grand Palace. The succession to the throne is guided by the 1924 Palace Law of Succession which allows only the males are allowed to ascend the throne while crown is passed from father to son only.

The Executive Branch Of The Government Of Thailand

The government of Thailand is headed by the prime minister. The premier is the head of the major party in the House of Representatives. He or she is selected by election in the lower house of parliament and approved by the king. The premier heads the executive branch and also heads the Cabinet of Thailand. The prime minister has the powers to appoint and dismiss ministers and is the main spokesperson for the government. He or she represents the country abroad and also formulates the country’s foreign policies. The Thai’s Cabinet is composed of 35 ministers and deputy ministers who are in charge of cabinet ministries. The Cabinet formulates and executes government policies. Most of the cabinet ministers are members of the lower house although this is not a mandatory requirement.

The Legislative Branch Of The Government Of Thailand

The Parliament of Thailand is bicameral, composing of the House of Representatives and the Senate. The national assembly consists of 630 members. The Senate is made of 76 elected members from the 76 provinces and 74 selected members by the Senate Selection Commission. The Senate plays an almost insignificant role in legislation but retains a lot of powers on appointments of the members of the judiciary and other government agencies. The House of Representative is the legislative house. It is composed of 500 members of whom 375 are elected from the constituencies around the country while the 125 are selected from the party list. The house is led by the Speaker while the leader of the largest party is likely to become the prime minister.

The Judicial Branch Of The Government Of Thailand

Thailand’s judiciary is made up of four separate systems. The court of justice is the main court system forming the most number of courts in the country and is composed of three tiers, the Supreme Court, Court of Appeal, and the First Instance Court. The administrative court settles disputes between the states and state organs. Other court systems include the military courts and the constitutional court.


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