What Type Of Government Does Luxembourg Have?

The flag of Luxembourg.
The flag of Luxembourg.

Luxembourg is a parliamentary representative democratic monarchy with a multi-party system, and therefore the country's head of government is the Prime Minister. Luxembourg's executive power is exercised under the 1868 Constitution by the Council of Government also known as the cabinet, the Grand Duke, and the government. The Council of Government comprises of a prime minister together with some ministers where the prime minister is the leader of the coalition of parties or political party which has the majority seats in parliament. While the legislative power is vested in both the parliament and government, the country's judiciary is independent of both the legislature and the executive.

The Executive Branch Of The Government Of Luxembourg

With a constitutional monarchy, the country consists of a parliamentary form of government that operates according to equal primogeniture. The 1868 constitution bestows executive powers on the Grand Duke or Grand Duchess and the cabinet. The country's monarchy is hereditary within the ruling dynasty which is the Luxembourg-Nassau. The Grand Duke has the power to dissolve and reinstate a new legislature, but as from 1919, sovereignty has resided with the nation. The monarch appoints both the prime minister and vice prime minister after popular elections to the Chamber of Deputies. At present, the government of Luxembourg is a coalition of the LSAP, Green Party, and DP.

The Legislative Branch Of The Government Of Luxembourg

Legislative power in Luxembourg is vested in the Chamber of Deputies which has 60 members who are directly elected to serve a term of five years through proportional representation in four constituencies that are multi-seat. An advisory body of the Council of State which is proposed by the cabinet is also appointed by the Grand Duke. The advisory body is made up of 21 citizens often comprising of senior public servants with good political connections or politicians. Traditionally, the heir to the Luxembourg throne is a member of the advisory body whose main responsibility is to advise the Chamber of Deputies when drafting the legislation. A member of the Council of State can step down following a discontinuous or continuous period of 15 years or if they reach the age of 72. Besides, the regular duties, the responsibilities bestowed on the members of the Council of State are independent of what they do professionally.

The Judicial Branch Of The Government Of Luxembourg

With plenty of modifications, modernizations, and updates, the law in Luxembourg is based upon Code Napoléon. The Superior Court of Justice in Luxembourg is the pinnacle of the judicial system, and its judges are appointed for life by the Grand Duke and the same rules apply to the Administrative Court. The judiciary branch in Luxembourg works as an independent entity away from the legislative and the executive branches.

Political Parties And Elections In Luxembourg

Elections in the country are held on a regular basis to determine the political composition of the Grand Duchy's representative institutions: elections are considered to be fair and free. Luxembourg holds separate elections to vote in representatives at the European, national and communal levels. The country's political arena has been dominated by three political parties which are the Luxembourg Socialist Workers’ Party (LSAP), the Democratic Party (DP) and the Christian Social People's Party (CSV). However, the total percentage of the three parties has been on a decline paving the way for two additional parties which are The Alternative Democratic Reform Party (ADR) and, the Greens Party. Since time immemorial, CSV has always been the biggest political party within the legislative.


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