Government Of Kyrgyzstan
The government of Kyrgyzstan functions as a parliamentary representative democratic republic, which means that a group of elected individuals represents the interests of the electors. This is carried out through a parliamentary system that is managed by the President, as Head of State, and the Prime Minister, as Head of Government.
Kyrgyzstan suffered significant political turmoil prior to 2010, with protests largely aimed at the authoritarian powers of the previous President. In 2010, protesters took control of the government buildings, causing the ex-President to leave the country. The opposing party took the presidential office and in June of that year, the country voted on a new Constitution to reduce presidential power and give more power to Parliament. Today, the government is divided into 3 branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. This article takes a closer look at each branch of government.
Executive Branch Of The Government Of Kyrgyzstan
The executive branch of government is led by both the President and the Prime Minister.
The President of Kyrgyzstan is elected by popular vote to serve a 6-year term. The responsibilities of the President include: making recommendations for Supreme Court judges to Parliament, signing new legislation into law, administering foreign policies, and acting as Commander-in-Chief of the military. The person in this position also serves as a symbol of unity for the country.
The Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan is appointed by the President, serving as acting Prime Minister until Parliament votes to confirm the appointment. It is the responsibility of the Prime Minister, as Head of Government, to select Ministers for the Cabinet. The Cabinet of Ministers oversees the administration of the executive branch and its ministries. These ministries include Healthcare, Natural Resources, Transportation, Defense, Foreign Affairs, Internal Affairs, and National Security (to name a few).
Legislative Branch Of The Government Of Kyrgyzstan
The current legislative branch of government consists of a unicameral Supreme Council, which acts as Parliament. The term unicameral means that this parliamentary body consists of only one house or department. The Supreme Council of Kyrgyzstan is made up of 120 members, who are elected by party-list proportional voting to serve 5-year terms. Party-list proportional representation is a voting system in which various political parties make lists of candidates. The public then casts their votes for a specific political party and seats are given to candidates based on voting percentages. Each party is limited to only 65 of the 120 seats in an attempt to evenly disperse political power.
Judicial Branch Of The Government Of Kyrgyzstan
The judicial branch of Kyrgyzstan is organized like that of many other countries. It consists of a number of courts in a hierarchical system, with the Supreme Court being the highest level. The Military Court is a separate and independent court that is used to decide all cases dealing with the military. Below the Supreme Court are Appeal Courts of 2nd Instance and Local Courts of 1st Instance. Issues of property, misdemeanor crimes, and family disputes are seen by traditional courts, which are made up of elders from the community. These cases are dealt with outside of the traditional and formal judicial branch with some oversight from the local prosecutor’s office.