The medieval history of Kazakhstan features occupation by various peoples such as the Yueban, Turks, Mongols, and Arabs. The Kazakh Khanate reigned in the area from 1465 to 1731 until the Russian Empire invaded the Kazakh territory. The short-lived Alash Autonomy (1917-1920) was succeeded by the Soviet Union until 1991 when the Republic of Kazakhstan was ushered in. Nursultan Nazarbayev led the country as the first President-elect and has retained the position ever since. The World Economic Forum ranked Kazakhstan the 50th in regards to Government Efficiency index in 2015.
Executive Branch Of The Government Of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan's President is elected by popular vote every five years. The president makes the appointment of the Prime Minister as well as that of the first deputy Prime Minister. The Council of Ministers also receives their appointment from the President. The President is recognized as Kazakhstan's commander-in-chief of the armed forces. He retains the right to veto legislation that has been approved by Kazakhstan's parliament. President Nazarbayev has further added to himself more powers through presidential decree. He can now dissolve Parliament, appoint administrative heads of cities and regions, appoint and dismiss the government, call referendums, and initiate constitutional amendments. The country's Prime Minister presides over the Council of Ministers. Kazakhstan has three deputy Prime Ministers in addition to 17 ministers. The Prime Minister executes his mandate at the instruction of President Nazarbayev.
Legislative Branch Of The Government Of Kazakhstan
Two chambers execute legislative responsibilities in Kazakhstan. 77 seats exist in the Assembly or Mazhilis, where ten seats are by proportional representation, and the rest 67 are single seat constituencies. The assembly members are elected in for four years. The Senate is composed of 47 members, seven of whom receive their appointments from the President, and the other 40 are elected by local assemblies in double-seat constituencies for six-year terms. Former Presidents are also ex-officio senators for life. Most of the legislation tabled in Parliament is proposed by the government.
Judicial Branch Of The Government Of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan judicial structure features local and regional courts. At the national level is the Supreme Court which has 44 judges. Local courts are Kazakhstan's courts of the first instance, and they give audience to less serious crimes including vandalism. Regional courts try serious cases, and appeals from these courts are heard at the Supreme Court. Regional courts also give audience to cases in rural areas with no local courts and also receive appeals from local courts. The Ministry of Justice recommends a list of lower-level judges to the President for approval. Regional judges are appointed by Kazakhstan's President upon nomination by the Supreme Judicial Council. The Supreme Judicial Council of Kazakhstan is mandated to nominate judges of the Supreme Court and the Senate approves their names. The country's Constitution provides for the establishment of a seven-member Constitutional Council. The Council is mandated to decide on the constitutionality of the legislation passed by Kazakhstan's parliament. The Council further determines on challenges to referendums and elections and is also authorized to interpret the constitution.
Administration Of Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan has 14 provinces in addition to the two municipal districts of Astana and Almaty. Each province is governed by a provincial governor or Akim who is appointed by the President. Provincial Akims appoint municipal Akims. The government of Kazakhstan has Astana as its current capital.