The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, simply known as Jordan, is a kingdom in Western Asia on the bank of the Jordan River. It is located at the crossroad of three continents; Asia, Africa, and Europe. The occupation of the present day Jordan dates back to the Paleolithic period with three major kingdoms emerging during the Bronze Age; Ammon, Moab, and Edom. Jordan attained its independence in 1946 and was officially recognized as The Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan.
Politics And Government Of Jordan
Jordan’s politics is organized within the framework of parliamentary monarchy based on the constitution promulgated in 1952 with the king holding a wide range of powers that are both legislative and executive in nature. The king is the head of state and also the supreme leader of the Jordanian army. He appoints the prime minister who is the head of government and head of security directorate. Jordan is subdivided into 12 governorates, also known as Muhafazah. The governorates are headed by governors who are appointed by the prime minister. Jordan is a multiparty state with about 50 political parties representing the different groups and ideologies in the country. The government of Jordan is subdivided into three branches, the executive, legislative, and judiciary.
The Executive Branch Of The Government Of Jordan
Jordan’s executive branch is headed by the King who is also the head of state. The executive authority is exercised by the king and his cabinet. The king has the powers to make key appointments such as the prime minister, judges, head of security directorates, and cabinet. The king can also sign, execute, and veto all laws, declare war, dissolve parliament, and dismiss the government. He also approves the amendments to the constitution. Currencies, court judgments, and court decisions are issued in the name of the king. The prime minister oversees the activities of the cabinet. Together with the cabinet, the prime minister formulates policies and measures towards improving the welfare of the country. The cabinet is supervised by the Chambers of Deputies.
The Legislative Branch Of The Government Of Jordan
The legislative power is vested in the parliament. The parliament, known as Majlis al-Umma, is divided into the Chambers of Deputies and the Assembly of Senators. The Chambers of Deputies is made up of 130 members who are elected to a four-year term. 15 seats are reserved for women and 12 seats for Christians and Circassians. The Chamber of Deputies approves, rejects, or amends legislations with less power to formulate laws. The Assembly of Senators is made up of 65 members. The king has a great influence on senators since he is responsible for their appointment. The Assembly of Senators that serves for s 4-year term is accountable to the Chambers of Deputies and may resign if the Chambers pass a vote of no confidence.
The Judicial Branch Of The Government Of Jordan
The judiciary is totally independent of the other branches of government. The courts are divided into three courts; civil, religious, and special. Civil or regular courts handle both criminal and civil cases. The highest judicial authority in Jordan is the Cassation Court. Religious courts are divided into Sharia courts concerned with the enforcement of the Islamic laws, and tribunals that deal with legal matters related to other religions.