What Type Of Government Does Hungary Have?

The parliament buildings in Budapest, Hungary.
The parliament buildings in Budapest, Hungary.

Hungary is a country in Central Europe located in the Carpathian Basin. With a population of about 10 million people, Hungary is classified as a medium-sized member state of the European Union. Hungary transitioned from communism to democracy and then to capitalism as a result of economic stagnation, political tension, and changing relations within the Warsaw Pact countries. It emerged as an independent country after World War I. The politics of the country take place under a parliamentary representative democratic republic. Hungary has 18 counties, 23 urban counties, and one capital city.

Politics Of Hungary

Hungary is an independent and a constitutional state and has been a parliamentary republic since 1989. Hungarian politics take place under a parliamentary representative democratic republic. The political system in the country operates under a framework reformed in 2012. The Constitution of Hungary is the Fundamental Law of Hungary. The constitution guarantees human dignity, separation of power, the structure of the state, and highlights the rule of law. Hungary has been a multi-party state since the fall of communism. The country has held seven parliamentary elections since the first multi-party elections in 1990. The constitution of Hungary recognizes three levels of government; the executive, legislature, and judiciary. All the three branches work independently without the influence of the other. The president of Hungary is the head of state while the prime minister is the head of government.

Executive Branch Of The Government Of Hungary

The executive branch comprises of the president, prime minister, and cabinet ministers. The executive powers are exercised by the government of Hungary. The executive branch is the principle organ of public administration. The president (who plays largely a ceremonial role) is elected by the parliament for a five-year term. He is the supreme authority of the Hungarian armed forces. The president also nominates the prime minister who must be approved by the Members of Parliament. Traditionally, the prime minister has been the leader of the largest party in parliament. The premier appoints cabinet ministers who must first appear before a consultative open hearing by a committee of parliament and voted by the parliament before they can be formally appointed by the president. He holds the exclusive right to dismiss any cabinet minister while the cabinet itself account to the Parliament.

Legislative Branch Of The Government Of Hungary

The legislative branch comprises of both the parliament and the government. The National Assembly of Hungary comprises of 199 members elected to a four-year term. The parliament is the highest organ of state authority responsible for initiating laws and approving legislations sponsored by the prime minister. The parliament elects the president and approves the nomination of the prime minister. The National Assembly also approves the cabinet ministers before they are formally appointed by the president. The cabinet is also responsible to the National Assembly.

Judicial Branch Of The Government Of Hungary

The judicial system of Hungary is divided between courts with civil and administrative courts. The civil courts consist of local courts, regional courts, and Supreme Court. The police and border guards are responsible for enforcing the law. the Supreme Court, Attorney General, and the Chief Prosecutor are completely independent of the executive. The Ombudsman office exists to protect the people on the non-judicial matters.


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