What Type Of Government Does Ghana Have?

The flag of Ghana.
The flag of Ghana.

Ghana is one of the most politically stable West African States. The presidential representative democratic republic exercises power sharing between the president, cabinet, legislature, and judiciary. The seat of the government of Ghana is at the Golden Jubilee House in Accra. Ghana attained independence from the British in 1957 becoming the first sub-Saharan state to gain independence. The sovereignty of the government rests with the people. Ghana is a multi-party state with presidential and parliamentary elections held after four years. Ghana engages in diplomatic relations with other countries and is a member of some regional and international bodies such as ECOWAS, the African Union, and the United Nations.

The 1992 Constitution Of Ghana

Following the failure of the four previous constitutions in Ghana, a new constitution was drafted during the 1990 constitutional reforms in the country. The constitution of Ghana is the supreme law of the Republic, which received a 92% approval vote in April 1992 and was adopted in May 1992. The 1992 constitution established Ghana as a unitary state with sovereignty vested upon the people and introduced the concept of power sharing to reduce the chances of dictatorial regimes from developing. The Constitution defines the structure of the government, responsibilities of the elected officials and citizens as well as the fundamental rights and freedoms of the people. The constitution addresses issues that plagued previous governments and attempts to decentralize executive power to promote accountability of public leaders.

The President Of Ghana

The President of the Republic of Ghana is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces and the head of state and government. The president is elected through a two-round system. For one to qualify as a presidential candidate, they must be citizens of Ghana from birth and have a minimum age of 40 years. Presidents are elected to a four-year term that is renewable only once. The chief justice swears in the president. The president has certain duties and responsibilities under the constitution including exercising executive power, representing Ghana in diplomatic relations and declaring war and states of emergency. Parliament has the constitutional power to impeach the president. Nana Akufo-Addo, elected in 2016, is the current president of Ghana.

Branches Of The Government Of Ghana

The president of Ghana heads the executive branch of the government of Ghana and appoints the vice president and the cabinet. At least half of the cabinet ministers are selected from the parliament according to the constitution. Ghana has a 275-member in a unicameral parliament through which legislative power is exercised. Members of the legislature are elected by a single majority vote once every four years. The president approves any legislation made by the Parliament before adopting them as laws. The judiciary a type of legal arm within the government that exists independently from the legislature and the executive. The president, through recommendations of the Judicial Council, appoints judges and other members of the judiciary. The 1992 constitution, the British common law, and the traditional law form the framework on which Ghana’s legal system is based. The Supreme Court is the top most court followed by the courts of appeal, the high courts, magistrate courts, and traditional courts. The chief justice is the head of the Supreme Court.


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