What Type Of Government Does Georgia Have?

The parliament buildings in Tbilisi, Georgia.
The parliament buildings in Tbilisi, Georgia.

Government of Georgia

The government of Georgia is carried out under a semi-presidential representative democracy. This country held its first democratic republic elections in 1990. Beginning in 2007, politicians here have been debating whether or not to change the governmental framework to a constitutional monarchy. Currently, the country is headed by the president and prime minister. Government powers are separated into 3 specific branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. This article takes a closer look at each.

Executive Branch

The executive branch of government is led by the president and the prime minister.

The president is elected by the general population to serve a 5 year term. The person in this position serves as the Head of State and appoints the prime minister to office. Additionally, the president is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces and ensures that government ministries are operating within the guidelines of the Constitution. The president also represents the country in international affairs and negotiations, appoints ambassadors and diplomats, and recommends justices to serve on the highest court of the judicial branch.

The prime minister is the head of the Cabinet of Ministers. The person in this position is also referred to as the Head of Government and works to ensure that the Ministers of the Cabinet carry out all legislation as enacted by the legislative branch. Some of the Ministries of Georgia include: Justice, Agriculture, Corrections, Internal Affairs, Foreign Affairs, and Defense.

Legislative Branch

The legislative branch of government is made up of the Parliament of Georgia, a unicameral legislative body. Parliament consists of 150 members, which are elected by the general population to serve 4-year terms. Of these seats, 77 are elected based on proportional representation and 73 are elected based on single-member district plurality. This legislative body is responsible for drafting new legislation and for guiding national and foreign policy. It manages executive branch duties within constitutional regulations. Within Parliament, members are divided into special committees that work to address specific public issues. These committee members draft and propose new legislative actions that are debated and decided upon by all members after a committee reading.

Currently, the Georgian Dream political party holds majority representation in Parliament with 115 seats. This party is supported by the Industry Will Save Georgia party (1 seat) and opposed by 4 parties: European Georgia (21 seats), United National Movement (6 seats), Alliance of Patriots of Georgia (6 seats), and the Independent party (1 seat).

Judicial Branch

The judicial branch consists of the hierarchy of courts found within Georgia. The two highest courts are the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Court.

The Supreme Court oversees cases and administration of the lower level courts. It acts as the final court of appeals in the country. Justices of this court are recommended by the President and voted on by the members of Parliament to serve a term of at least 10 years.

The Constitutional Court hears cases concerning constitutional interpretation, separation of government powers, and issues of human rights. Nine judges make up its bench; 3 of these judges are appointed by the president, 3 are appointed by Supreme Court justices, and 3 are elected by Parliament.


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