What Type of Government Does Egypt Have?
Egypt is a Northern Africa country bordering four other countries including the Gaza Strip, Israel, Libya, and Sudan. Egypt manages the Sinai Peninsula, the only land connecting Africa and the other parts of the Eastern Hemisphere. The Suez Canal which is a portion of the sea linking the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean is also controlled by Egypt. The country is formally known as the Arab Republic of Egypt and locally known as the Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah or just Misr. The country attained independence on February 28, 1922, from Britain as a protectorate. It gained a republic status in 1953 after the revolution that began in 1952. However, it was in 3200 BC that the two regions of the lower and upper lands were first united politically. Presently, the country has a presidential system of Government.
Executive Branch Of The Government Of Egypt
The chief of state is the president who is voted by a majority vote (in a second round if the need arises) for a four-year office term and is entitled to a second term if re-elected. The last voting in Egypt was conducted in May 2014, and Abdelfattah Said Elisi was elected, and he is the current president. The next election will be held in May 2018. The premier is the head of government and receives the appointment from the president and must be approved by the legislature. The current prime minister is Sherif Ismail who has been in office since September 12, 2015, after the resignation of Ibrahim Mahlab in 2015.
Legislature Of The Government Of Egypt
Egypt has a unicameral parliamentary system that is the House of Representatives also known as the Majlis Al-Nowaab that has 596 seats out of which 448 are directly elected, 120 members apportioned to the women, youth, and Christians, and 28 members selected by the president. The Parliamentary election is multiphased.
Judicial Branch Of The Government Of Egypt
The highest court in the country is the Supreme Constitutional Court (SSC) consisting of the court’s president and other ten justices. The Supreme Constitutional Court is the last court of arbitration on the constitutionality of country’s laws and other conflicts between the lower courts on matters concerning rulings and jurisdiction. The Court of Cessation (CC) is made up of the president of the court and other 550 judges structured in circuits and cases are heard by five judges. The Court of Cessation is the highest court of appeal for criminal and civil cases. The Supreme Administrative Court (SAC) is made up of the president of the court and it is structured in circuits as well, and cases are heard by a panel of five judges. The Supreme Administrative Court is the highest court of the state council. According to the 2014 constitution, all the judges and justices are selected by the Supreme Judiciary Council and the appointment is done by the president. Judges are appointed for life. There are other subordinate courts in the country which include the courts of Appeal, Courts of the First instance, courts of limited jurisdiction, and family courts that were established in 2004.
The Constitution Of Egypt
The country had several constitutions over the years even when it was a monarchy state prior to 1952. The first one was in 1923 after the country’s independence. In 1930, another constitution was enacted and abrogated five years later after protests and the 1923 constitution was adopted. The same constitution was permanently abolished in the 1952 revolution when the country became a republic. In 1964 an interim constitution was promulgated, but in 1971 a new constitution was adopted through a referendum to replace the interim constitution and was amended in 1980, 2005 and 2007. In 2011 the 1971 constitution was suspended following the civilian revolution. In 2012 another constitution was approved through a referendum, but was suspended in a military coup in 2013 and a new constitution was approved by voters in 2014.