Chad is a presidential republic whereby the president of the country serves as both the head of state and head of government. While the government of Chad exercises executive power, the legislative power is vested in both the parliament and government. The Republic of Chad is among the world's most corrupt countries. Security forces in the country attempted a coup in May of 2013 against the republic's President Idriss Deby, and the coup had been in preparation for a few months.
Executive Branch of Government
The Republic of Chad comprises of a powerful executive branch of government headed by President Idriss Deby who has dominated the country's politics since 1990. Deby and his military overthrew the former President Hissène Habré in December 1990, and Deby went ahead to win the 1996 and 2001 presidential elections. In 2005, the president repealed the provision in the 1996 constitution, where it says that the president of Chad is limited to serve for only two terms. Both the cabinet and the prime minister are appointed by the president who also has a considerable amount of influence over the appointment of heads of parastatals firms, provincial officers, generals, and judges. In Chad, a state of emergency may only be declared in the case of an immediate and grave threat. Despite some opposition and southern representatives in the government, most of the president's chief advisors hail from the Zaghawa clan.
Legislative Branch of Government
Deputies to the national assembly are elected through a universal suffrage to serve a term of 4 years according to the constitution. Regular sessions are held by the national assembly twice a year, but special sessions called by the prime minister can also be held whenever necessary. The regular sessions start in March and October. Every two years the president of the assembly is elected by the deputies. Legislation may be introduced by members of the assembly or the deputies and once it is passed by the national assembly, the country's head of state can either reject or sign into law; his or her action must be within 15 days. The plan of government by the prime minister must be approved by the national assembly which may also force him or her to resign through a vote of no confidence. If the program is rejected twice in one year by the assembly, it may be disbanded by the president and elections for a new legislature will be called. The president of Chad also has an enormous of influence on the national assembly.
Judicial Branch of Government
Under the 1996 constitution, the judicial branch is independent of the executive branch. However, in practice, the president has considerable influence since he names a number of the relevant judicial officials. Members of the supreme court are appointed for life, and they consist of 15 councilors who are chosen by the national assembly and the president. The chief justice is appointed by the president. Power to review international agreements, legislation, and treaties before they are adopted is vested in the Constitutional Council of Chad, which comprises of 9 judges elected to serve a term of 9 years. The traditional and customary law is recognized by the constitution, provided it does not contradict the constitutional guarantees of equality for all citizens and public order.
Elections and Political Parties
Elections are held for both the president, who is the head of state, and the legislature on a national level. While the head of state is elected to serve a term of 5 years, members of the national assembly are elected to serve a term of 4 years. The Patriotic Salvation Movement has been in power since the country is a one-party dominant state. However, opposition parties are allowed to exist despite them having no chance of assuming leadership in the country.