Government Of Cameroon
The government of Cameroon is organized and administered as a unitary presidential republic. Under this political framework, the President serves as both the Head of State and the Head of Government. This presidential power was established after the political reforms of 1996, which amended the Constitution of 1975. The government of Cameroon is separated into 3 branches in order to ensure separation of power. This article takes a closer look at the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of this country.
Executive Branch Of The Government Of Cameroon
The executive branch is made up of the President and the Cabinet of Ministers.
The President of Cameroon is elected by the general population to serve a 7-year term. The presidency is limited to two terms. The responsibilities of the President include: appointing the Cabinet of Ministers, signing bills into law, acting as the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces, and determining the national policies. The President also appoint a Prime Minister to oversee the Cabinet of Ministers.
The Prime Minister works closely with the Ministers of the country to make sure that the government runs according to the legislation passed. The executive power of this position is relatively limited, however. The President may remove the Prime Minister from office at any time. Some of the various ministries that make up the government of this country include: Social Affairs, Defense, Superior State Audit, Culture, Urban Development, and Education.
Legislative Branch Of The Government Of Cameroon
The legislative branch consists of a bicameral Parliament, which is divided into the Senate and the National Assembly. The members of Parliament convene on 3 ordinary occasions every year: March and April, June and July, and November and December. During these sessions, Parliament rules on legislation, most of which is introduced by the executive branch. Once a bill is passed by Parliament, it goes on for presidential approval.
The Senate is the upper parliamentary house and has 100 members. Of these members, the general population elects 70 and the President appoints 30. Each region of Cameroon is represented by 10 senators.
The National Assembly is the lower parliamentary house and has 180 members. Each member is elected by the general population to serve a 5-year term. These members represent 49 constituencies, or electoral districts.
Judicial Branch Of The Government Of Cameroon
The judicial branch of government consists of the courts of the country. It has been developed based on British law, French civil code, and local customs. The tribunals serve as the courts of first instance and any cases heard here may be appealed to the next level of the judiciary, the courts of appeals.
The highest court in Cameroon is the Supreme Court, which acts as the final court of appeals. The President appoints the justices to this court and the Higher Judicial Council is responsible for overseeing their work. The Supreme Court is further divided into 3 divisions: judicial, administrative, and audit. The judicial division hears cases that have been appealed from the lower courts. The administrative division may receive cases on first instance, rather than appeal, if the issue involves election disagreements, government actions, or government representatives. Finally, the audit division is responsible for cases that involve public accounts or semi-private organizations.