Bangladesh is located in the South Asia and shares its borders with India and Myanmar. The politics of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh takes place in the context of a parliamentary representative democratic republic with government headed by the prime minister. The government of Bangladesh is a parliamentary democracy since the popular party with the highest members in parliament form the government with the leader becoming the prime minister or the chancellor. President appoints the prime minister who belongs to the supreme decision-making committee.
The Executive Branch Of The Government Of Bangladesh
The executive branch of the government of Bangladesh is headed by the president who is largely ceremonial. The President of Bangladesh is the head of state. Greater power is vested in the prime minister who is the head of government. The president is elected for a five-year term by the legislature or the national parliament and is given limited powers that are only expanded during the caretaker government to enable to facilitate the transitioning to a new government. The president is only allowed to act upon the advice of the prime minister and the cabinet. He or she appoints government officials including the prime minister and can send back bills to parliament for review. The prime minister is appointed from the most popular party or coalition and in turn, selects his cabinet who are officially appointed by the president. Unlike the president, the prime minister has no term limit. The executive arm is in charge of the administration of the country and the execution of the laws passed by the legislature. It also maintains law and order in the country and maintains international relationships with other foreign countries. The executive is also in charge of defending and preserving the sovereignty of Bangladesh
The Legislature Of Bangladesh
The legislative branch of Bangladesh is Unicameral. The unicameral Parliament or Jatiya Sangsad is made up of 350 seats with 50 seats reserved for women. The members of parliament are elected by universal suffrage for five years. The 50 seats reserved for women are allocated to parties in proportion to their shares of the votes. The national parliament is tasked with carrying out foreign and domestic policies. The parliament debates on bills and policies before they are presented to the president for signing into law. The president has the powers to accept or reject the bills and send them back to parliament for review or amendment.
The Judiciary Of Bangladesh
The Supreme Court is the highest body in the judiciary. The judges and the chief justice are appointed by the president upon the recommendation of the prime minister. However, the judiciary is separated from the control of the executive through constitution amendments. The judges are expected to retire from the bar ones they reach the age of 67 years according to the Constitution of Bangladesh. The Supreme Court has both the administrative and judiciary authority over all the lower courts in Bangladesh.
The Political Parties Of Bangladesh
Bangladesh is a multi-party state with three major parties including Bangladesh National Party, Bangladesh Awami League, and Jatiya Party. The Awami League and the BNP have a history of rivalry punctuated by violence and protests