Sana'a serves as the capital city of Yemen. The city is famous for its historic buildings and mosques. It also hosts the Islamic Centre that features the Great Mosque of Sana'a and the Al Saleh Mosque. It has a population of approximately two million people. Geographically, Sana'a is located at a higher altitude with slightly moderate climate as compared to other parts of Yemen.
History of the Capital City of Yemen
The city is believed to have been discovered by Shem, son of Noah in the Bible. Initially, the city was called "Azal"; a name derived from Uzal in the lineage of Noah in the book of Genesis in the Bible.
During the rise of Islam, Sana'a city was pivotal as many groups attempted to gain control over this city, leading to instability in the region. The Sulayhid dynasty took over in 1062 before being toppled by the Hamdanid dynasty around the year 1138. However, the latter did not last long since Egypt's sultan, Saladin, conquered Yemen and took control of Sana'a. Sana'a witnessed significant progress during this time. The Sultan successfully united various tribes in the southern part of the city under the umbrella of a common religion, Sunni Islam. Other invasions afterward included those by the Rasulids, Tahirids, and the Mamelukes.
The Ottoman Empire took control over Sana'a in 1547. The Zaydi Imams later invaded them and the Ottoman Empire took over in 1872. The empire then started instituting its policies in Sana'a. The Ottomans focused on improving the infrastructural facilities in the city including schools and roads among other essential amenities.
The Ottoman influence faded drastically, and Imam Yahya who belonged to Zayyidi took over. Due to his alienation policies, he faced a lot of resistance, especially from people of Sana'a. Many people who staged resistance were executed and banned. However, the continued friction forced the royalist to strike a deal with the Republicans.
Government and Administration
Sana'a city is divided into two parts, namely; the New City and the Old City. The New City is then subdivided into districts such as Al Wahdah, As Sabain, and At Tahrir Districts among others. Sana'a hosts the headquarters of the Supreme Court, the Parliament, and the President's Palace in Yemen.
Sana'a has faced many challenges in the past which have hindered its growth for many years. The city has been on the receiving end of various battling Islamic groups. For example, on June 12, 2015, an airstrike made by Saudi soldiers targeted a UNESCO Heritage Centre in the city and destroyed it.
Rural to urban immigration has led to overpopulation in Sana'a resulting in insufficiency of the available facilities. Moreover, transport facilities are not sufficient since currently and the city lacks a railway line.