Medieval China was the period in Chinese history between the 6th and the 16th centuries. The period was marked by centuries of peace which were often interrupted by rebellions and wars. The immense size of China and internal conflicts were some of the factors that hindered the establishment of successful dynasties in Medieval China. Nonetheless, five powerful dynasties emerged during the period including the Sui, Tang, Song, Yuan, and Ming dynasties.
The Sui Dynasty
The ascension of Emperor Wen in 581 marked the start of the Sui Dynasty which ruled over most of modern-day China for 37 years until 618. Emperor Wen established the dynasty after he led successful battles against the Northern Zhou of the Northern Dynasty, and the Chen Dynasty that ruled over the Southern Dynasty. The Dynasty is remembered for reunifying China after centuries of division, albeit using warfare, as well as engaging in major infrastructural projects such as the Grand Canal and the Great Wall. Unfortunately, it was these infrastructural projects and battles that caused the downfall of the Sui Dynasty as they required heavy human and financial capital, and resulted in the forceful conscription of people into the army which ultimately led to the collapse of the dynasty in 618.
The Tang Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty was among the most powerful dynasties in medieval China and ruled over an empire that covered over 2.1 million square miles. Emperor Gaozu was the first emperor of the dynasty, which he established in 618 after inheriting the throne from his first cousin, Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty. The dynasty was characterized by internal conflicts within the royal family featuring assassinations and coups. Nonetheless, the Tang Dynasty represented the golden age of medieval Chinese civilization and witnessed constant economic growth. The immense size of the empire led to its downfall, as the central government failed to quell rebellions in many of its provinces.
The Song Dynasty
Another of medieval China’s powerful dynasties was the Song Dynasty whose reigned lasted over three centuries between 960 and 1279. At its peak, the empire covered an area of 1.2 million square miles. Emperor Taizu, the dynasty’s first emperor, successfully reunited China through military campaigns and established the Song Dynasty. Securing the empire was of high priority to the Song Dynasty, which oversaw the establishment of medieval China’s first permanent naval force. The Mongol invasion of the 13th century caused the demise of the Song Dynasty and ushered in the Yuan Dynasty.
The Yuan Dynasty
The Mongol ruler, Kublai Khan established the Yuan Dynasty in 1260 after defeating the Song Dynasty. The dynasty would reign over an area covering 4.2 million square miles, making it the largest empire in medieval China. The Yuan Dynasty inherited many of the governmental and socioeconomic structures of the Song Dynasty, but the Mongols also introduced western influence into Chinese culture. New varieties of crops were introduced during the Yuan Dynasty, which was instrumental in the population growth that was witnessed during that period. The dynasty’s decline started in the early 14th century and was caused by numerous rebellions and natural disasters. The fall of Khanbaliq of 1368 marked the end of the dynasty.
The Ming Dynasty
The Ming Dynasty was the last of medieval China’s powerful dynasties, whose reign began in 1368 and ended in 1644. At its peak, the Ming Dynasty ruled over an area covering 2.5 million square miles. Constant economic growth and centuries of political stability made the Ming Empire among the most powerful empires in history. Nanjing, the empire’s capital city, was home to the world’s largest naval force. Some of the major projects attributed to the dynasty include Beijing’s Forbidden City and the fortification of the Great Wall of China.