Italy’s President is the country’s Head of State, and nominates some of the government's highest ranking positions, while also being at the center of Italian foreign affairs. The president of Italy is elected after every seven years by a college composed of both Houses of Parliament and three representatives from each region. Among the President’s duties are appointing the country’s Prime Minister, ratifying international treaties and declaring war with parliament’s authorization, authorizing government’s bills to be introduced to both Houses, promulgating laws and issuing decrees and calling for national referendums as provisioned for in the constitution. The President of Italy is also the commander of the armed forces.
Enrico De Nicola
Enrico De Nicola was the first president of the Republic of Italy, serving from 1946 to 1948. Born in Naples on November 9, 1877, Enrico graduated from the University of Naples in 1896 having studied law. In the course of his law career, he earned a reputation as one of the best penal lawyers in Italy. Enrico identified with the Italian Liberal Party and represented Afragola in the Chamber of Deputies between 1909 and 1919.
Luigi Einaudi succeeded Enrico De Nicola as President and served between 1948 and 1955. Born on March 24, 1874, Luigi graduated from the University of Turin in 1895 having studied law. He became exposed to socialist ideas and began contributing to La Stampa, Turin’s most popular newspapers. He served as a professor at Pisa, University of Turin, Polytechnic University of Turin and the Bocconi University. He fled Italy to Switzerland after Armistice was declared in 1943.
Giovanni Gronchi was the third president of the Republic of Italy, serving from 1955 until 1962. Born on September 10, 1887, in Pontedera, Giovanni acquire a degree in literature and philosophy from the University of Pisa. He was a high school teacher in classics in various Italian towns from 1911 to 1915. After volunteering in WWI, he became a founding member of the Catholic party named Popular Party.
Antonio Segni succeeded Giovanni Gronchi as President, and served between 1962 and 1964. Born on February 2, 1891, in Sassari, Sardinia, Antonia studied agriculture and commercial law. He gained membership in the Italian Popular Party in 1919 and was an organizer in the provinces. Antonio went on to teach agrarian law in the Universities of Perugia, Pavia, and Cagliari for 17 years after political parties were banned under the fascist rule.