Albert Einstein was a German physicist during the 20th century who made an important mark in the mathematics and physics disciplines. He made several discoveries and conducted studies in physics through which he built on existing scientific theories. His background in a scientific family may have played a major role in his career trajectory. Einstein was a citizen of various countries including Germany, Switzerland, and the US. He became a Swiss citizen after renouncing his German citizenship to avoid conscription into the army. His citizenship in the US came during the Second World War due to threats to his security in the Nazi regime.
5. Early Life
Albert Einstein was born on March 14, 1879, in Wurttemberg kingdom of the German Empire to Hermann Einstein and Pauline Koch. He studied at the Swiss Federal Polytechnic, Zurich where he sat his entrance examinations. From a young age, Einstein had a remarkable aptitude for mathematics and physics. He received his secondary education at Argovian cantonal school in Switzerland. He later pursued a diploma in education majoring in maths and physics at the Zurich Polytechnic.
Einstein became a Swiss citizen in 1901 and began working at the patent office in Bern as Level III assistant examiner. He later worked in various academic institutions such as the University of Bern as a lecturer and later as an associate lecturer. He served in various academic institutions such as the Humboldt University of Berlin and the Institute for Advanced Studies in various teaching and leadership capacities. He wrote many scientific and non-scientific papers during his career time. His imagination is considered crucial in the theories and discoveries he made during his lifetime.
3. Major Contributions
Albert Einstein is remembered for his significant contributions to physics and philosophy. He discovered the law of photoelectric effect, the special theory of relativity, the Brownian motion, and came up with the equivalent mass-energy formula E= mc2. His interest and theories in energy, space, and time have been the basis and foundation for modern science, space exploration, light, and atomic energy. He made inventions such as the Einstein’s refrigerator and was part of the Manhattan Project. Despite his role in the creation of atomic bombs, he advocated for non-use of the bombs in the war due to the destruction they caused.
As an imaginative and highly talented scientist, Einstein faced a lot of opposition from anti-Semitic groups, and many claimed his theories and formulas were wrong. For example, his theory that light was capable of bending was received with criticism and scepticism by scientists. His health deteriorated over time affecting him mentally and physically. The situation was worsened by the world wars which threatened his safety due to his Jewish roots. His resilience and stubbornness developed during his childhood as well as the belief that his scientific theories and findings were correct enabled him to remain strong. Einstein turned challenges into opportunities.
1. Death and Legacy
Einstein died in Princeton Hospital on April 17th, 1955 at the age of 76, from internal bleeding caused by a ruptured aneurysm. His remains after cremation were scattered at an unknown location. He is remembered as one of the most influential scientists. Einstein won various awards including the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921, the Copley Medal in 1925, and the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1926 and the Time Person of the Year in 1999. The Historical Museum of Bern has been named the Einstein Museum.