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Estonia History Timeline

Estonia's Information

Flag of Estonia
Land Area 42,388 km2
Water Area 2,840 km2
Total Area 45,228km2 (#129)
Population 1,258,545 (#157)
Population Density 29.69/km2
Government Type Parliamentary Republic
GDP (PPP) $38.93 Billion
GDP Per Capita $29,500
Currency Euro (EUR)
Largest Cities
  • (3000 BC) Estonian ancestors settled along the Baltic coast
800 AD - 1600
  • (800-1200 AD) Raids by Vikings around Baltic sea, included Estonia Vikings
  • (1219) Danes took North Estonia; first foreign occupation
  • (1227) Riga-based German crusaders conquered and Christianized pagan Estonia
  • (1341) German Knights of the Cross negotiated the acquisition of Tallinn from Denmark, took over all of Estonia
  • (1346) Danes sold northern Estonia to the German Teutonic Order for 19,000 silver marks
  • (1523) Reformation occurred; Estonia first used in liturgy
  • (1561) Swedes conquered Estonia, repelled Russians; established social reforms
  • (1632) University of Tartu founded by Gustav II Adolf, King of Sweden
1700 - 1800
  • (1710) Russia conquered Estonia, Germans retained local control
  • (1721) Great Northern War ended with defeat for Sweden, left Russia as a new major power in the Baltic Sea; an estimated 100,000 Estonians survived
  • (1816) Serfdom abolished
  • (1870) Petersburg-Tallinn railway finished; Tallinn major Russian Empire port; Tallinn population grew
  • (1905) Revolution in Russia took place
  • (1918) Germany occupied Estonia
  • (1918-1920) Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania adopted Gregorian calendar; Estonia proclaimed independence from Russia; Germany and Austria forced Soviet Russia to sign the Peace of Brest, which called for the establishment of five independent countries, including Estonia; Germany transferred supreme power in Estonia to the provisional government; Estonian War of Independence began; red army units driven out of Estonia; Estonia adopted a constitution
  • (1921) Tartu Peace Treaty between Estonia and the Soviet Union recognized a free and independent Estonian Republic; Estonia became a member of the League of Nations
  • (1934) Prime Minister Konstantin Pats lead bloodless coup, established authoritarian rule
  • (1938) Pats became president under new constitution
  • (1939) Soviet Union compelled Estonia to accept Soviet military bases
  • (1940) Soviet troops marched into Estonia; Soviet Union occupied Estonia
  • (1941) Germany occupied Estonia
  • (1944) Estonia reannexed by Soviet Union; tens of thousands of Estonians deported to Siberia and Central Asia
  • (1987) First open protests against Soviet rule occurred
  • (1988) Popular front campaigned for democracy; "singing revolution" brought a third of the population together in a bid for national unity
  • (1991) Communist rule collapsed; Soviet government recognized independence of the Baltic republics
  • (1992) Lennart Meri became president
  • (1994) Russian troops left; Estonia joined Partnership for Peace, allowed limited military cooperation with NATO; Estonia became first European country to introduce a flat tax (26%) on personal and corporate income
  • (1996) President Meri re-elected
  • (1997) Estonia began European Union membership negotiations
  • (2001) Arnold Ruutel, former member of the Central Committee of the Soviet-era Communist party, sworn in as president
  • (2002) Mart Laar resigned as prime minister; new coalition government, Siim Kallas, became prime minister; NATO summit in Prague included Estonia on list of countries formally invited to join the alliance; EU summit in Copenhagen formally invited Estonia to join
  • (2003) Estonian voted overwhelming in a referendum to join the European Union
  • (2004) Estonia admitted to NATO; Estonia joined EU; defense minister Margus Hanson resigned
  • (2005) Estonia and Russia signed treaty delineating border; Russia withdrew from treaty
  • (2006) Parliament ratified EU constitution; Toomas Hendrik Ilves elected president
  • (2007) Parliament passed a law prohibiting the display of monuments glorifying Soviet rule; Estonia became the first country to allow internet voting for national parliamentary elections; authorities removed a controversial Red Army war memorial in Tallinn, one person killed and 40 injured during protest
  • (2009) Estonian court acquitted four ethnic Russians accused of leading riots in response to the relocation of a Soviet-era war memorial in Tallinn; parliament approved move to double size of Estonian contingent serving in Afghanistan as part of the International Security Assistance Force
  • (2011) Estonia changed currency from Kroon to Euro
This page was last updated on July 10, 2020.

About the Author

John Moen is a cartographer who along with his wife are the orignal founders of worldatlas.com. He and his wife, Chris Woolwine-Moen, produced thousands of award-winning maps that are used all over the world and content that aids students, teachers, travelers and parents with their geography and map questions. Today, it's one of the most popular educational sites on the web.

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