Ecological Regions Of Tunisia

Marj escarpment, Jebel Akhdar mountains, northeastern Libya: Mediterranean woodlands and forests.
Marj escarpment, Jebel Akhdar mountains, northeastern Libya: Mediterranean woodlands and forests.

Tunisia is located in northern Africa. The northern topography is mountainous, and the central area is dry plain. The southern area of the country is dry, barren desert.

Climate Of Tunisia

The climate of the country, similar to the topography, is greatly varied. The climate can be divided into two major areas, the north, influenced by the Mediterranean, and the south, influenced by the Saharan desert. The temperatures are mild along the coast. The summer is hot and dry in the north, and the winter is mild and consists of frequent rains. The precipitation also greatly varies, as the north receives significantly more rainfall than the south. The variation in climate leads to the great diversity of ecoregions in Tunisia.

Flora and Fauna Of Tunisia Housed In The Ecoregions Of The Country

The nine major regions can be characterized with the following biomes:

The temperate coniferous forests are predominantly filled with the Atlas Cedar. Other variations of coniferous trees growing in the region include Aleppo Pine and Algerian fir. The vegetation in the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub ranges from forests, woodlands, savannas to grasslands. The hot, dry summers of the region make it prone to fire, which is a major threat to the vegetation and the wildlife in the region. Also, problems like overgrazing, logging and urbanization have led to massive degradation of the region as habitat to wildlife. The Desert and Xeric Shrublands is characterized with a low precipitation, thence a great presence of wood stemmed shrubs and plants. The flooded grasslands and savannas are characterized by very wet soil content. The area is predominantly covered with Coniferous swamp, Dambo and Fen. The freshwater biome in the area is full of insects, aquatic birds and water plants. Some examples include the Otter, the Heron and the Water Lilly. The marine wildlife of Tunisia includes marine dolphins, jellyfish etc.

Conservation Efforts In Tunisia

Tunisia’s growing urbanization and reliance on agriculture leads to severe deforestation, which is a major threat to the environment of the region. Another major threat to the country is overpopulation. In the time period of 1990-98, only 52% of the residents had proper access to adequate sanitation, which further highlights the problem created by overpopulation. The most noticeable conservation effort in Tunisia is the establishment of the Ichkeul National Park located on the north of the country. The park covers 12,600 hectares of area and serves to preserve thousands of species of both plants and animals in the area.

Ecological Regions Of Tunisia

RankEcoregions of TunisiaBiome
1Mediterranean Conifer and Mixed ForestsTemperate Coniferous Forests
2Mediterranean Dry Woodlands and SteppeMediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
3Mediterranean Woodlands and ForestsMediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
4Northern Saharan Steppe and WoodlandsDeserts and Xeric Shrublands
5Saharan HalophyticsFlooded Grasslands and Savannas
6Temporary MaghrebFreshwater
7Permanent MaghrebFreshwater
8Gulf of Sidra Tunisian PlateauMarine
9Western Mediterranean SeaMarine

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