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New Brunswick History
The original inhabitants of New Brunswick were the First Nations - members of the Mi'kmaq, the Wolastoqiyik (Maliseet) and Passamaquoddy tribes, who lived in the eastern and coastal regions.
The first known European
exploration was conducted in 1534 by the French
explorer, Jacques Cartier, who discovered and named the Bay of Chaleur
In 1604, other French
explorers, Pierre du Gua de Months and Samuel de Champlain established a camp at St. Croix Island. Over the next 150 years, other French settlements were founded in the present day New Brunswick. This entire area was claimed by France
and named the colony of Acadia.
After numerous conflicts between the French and British
, the Treaty of Utrecht, signed in 1713, ceded the Acadia area to Britain. The Acadians were forced into exile by the British. Many escaped to the northeastern part of present day New Brunswick.
Following the Seven Years' War (1756 – 63), most of present day New Brunswick was absorbed into the colony of Nova Scotia
Immigration and Provincehood
New Brunswick's isolated location tended to discourage settlement. However, the New England Planters and the Pennsylvania Dutch immigrated to the area in 1766 and settled. In 1783, significant growth occurred when over 14,000 Loyalists from the United States arrived via the Saint John River.
There were many controversies between the Loyalists and the pre-loyalists, finally culminating in the portioning of Nova Scotia, and the establishment of the colony of New Brunswick in 1784. The provincial capital was established at Fredericton.
Immigration continued into the early 1800's with Scottish and Irish settlers arriving. Later immigration included Danish and Jewish settlers.
In the late 1830's, conflicts arose between New Brunswick lumbermen and the farmers from the state of Maine in the U.S., resulting in the Aroostook War. In August 1842, the signing of the Webster-Ashburton Treaty settled the Northeast Boundary Dispute and established the border between New Brunswick and Maine.