Denmark is Europe's oldest kingdom and its flag (known as the Dannebrog) is the oldest European flag, officially adopted in 1625.
Denmark's swallow-tailed flag is only authorized for use by governmental and public institutions, and by the royal family.
Denmark Coat of Arms:
The National Coat of Arms features three crowned lions facing left, surrounded by nine red hearts, all placed atop a golden shield. The crown on the shield is the crown of King Christian V.
The current version was adopted in 1819 during the reign of King Frederick VI.
Denmark has two national anthems, Der er et yndigt land (English translation: There is a lovely land/country) and Kong Christian stod ved højen mast (English translation: King Christian stood by the lofty mass). Both are celebrated with equal status in the country, but are used for different purposes. Der er et yndigt land is the country's civil national anthem, Kong Christian stod ved højen mast on the other hand is used for royal and military events. Denmark is the only country aside from New Zealand to have two official national anthems in the world.
Der er et yndigt land was officially adopted in 1835, with its lyrics written by Adam Oehlenschläger in 1819. It bears a Latin motto by Horace, Ille terrarum mihi praeter omnes angulus ridet (English translation: "This corner of the earth smiles for me more than any other"). In 1835, Hans Ernst Krøyer composed the musical score for the song. It initially had 12 verses, but over time, the song was shortened to only include the first, third, fifth, and final verse. Nowadays, only the first stanza and the final three lines of the fourth verse are commonly sung.
Kong Christian stod ved højen mast is also traditionally sung after the strike of midnight during New Year's Eve. The song celebrates the heroic acts of Danish sailors while in the middle of 17th and 18th centuries wars versus Sweden. It is also acknowledged to be one of the oldest national anthems in existence.
The lyrics to Kong Christian were first identified in May of 1773 in The Fishermen, a vaudeville play by Johannes Ewald. It was first performed during the birthday celebrations of King Christian VII in January 1780 at the Royal Danish Theatre. The play was first seen to be a homage to the Danish navy.
Der er et yndigt land,
det står med brede bøge
nær salten østerstrand
Det bugter sig i bakke, dal,
det hedder gamle Danmark
og det er Frejas sal
Vort gamle Danmark skal bestå,
så længe bøgen spejler
sin top i bølgen blå
There is a lovely country
it stands with broad beech
near [the] salty eastern beach
It winds itself in hill, valley,
it's called old Denmark
and it is Freja's hall
Our old Denmark must endure,
as long beech reflects
its top in the oceans blue