The Adriatic Sea is a water body that acts as a divide between the Italian Peninsula and the Balkan Peninsula. The sea, which is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extends from the Strait of Otranto all the way to the Po Valley. The sea forms coasts in several nations including Albania, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Italy, Slovenia, and Montenegro. By extension, these are also the nations that border the sea. In total, the sea has more than 1000 islands with most of them lying close to the Croatian coast on the east. The deepest part of the sea is the northern basin with a depth of about 4,045 feet. On average, it has a depth of about 1,457 feet and a length and width of about 500 miles and 100 miles respectively. Some of the main rivers draining into the sea include the likes of the Drin, Po, Bojana, Neretva, and others.
Countries That Border The Adriatic Sea
According to the United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea, Croatia has absolute control and ownership of the section of the Adriatic Sea around the country. This section owned by Croatia has an area of about 11,969.167 square miles. In 2003, an additional 9,216.2585 square miles was added to Croatia’s territory as part of an Ecological and Fisheries Protection Zone. Within the zone owned by Croatia, there are a little over 700 islands as well as several rocks and reefs. In relation to the country, the islands cover about 5.8% of the total surface area. However, despite the small coverage, the islands are crucial to the geography and economy of the nation through things like tourism and beauty. On average, the coastline receives about 11 million tourists every year.
Most of the islands are limestone except for a few of them such as the Brusnik and Jabuka Islands, which are volcanic. The two biggest islands are Krk and Cres with each having an area of about 157 square miles. The island of Murter is the smallest with an area of only seven square miles. Of the total number of islands, about fifty of them have inhabitants numbering around 132,443 people.
The coastline of the Adriatic Sea in Croatia, which has a length of about 1,104.177 miles, is characterized by an intense color and clarity. Including the shorelines of the islands, then the coastline extends to a length of about 3625.7009 miles. The indentation and structure mean that the shoreline is classified as Dalmatian. These two aspects of the coastline ensure that the landscape and scenery are unique and picturesque. The waters are rich in fish and crustaceans, which makes fishing a popular activity among visitors and locals. Red coral also exists in deeper places.
This coastline is shorter than Croatia’s above with a length of about 776 miles. Features such as sandy beaches, rocky cliffs, fishing ports, and other maritime features characterize the coastline. The coastline is located on the eastern side of Italy running from the Gulf of Venice and Trieste in the north all the way to the southeastern tip of the country at the Capo d'Otranto in Puglia. Some of the cities and towns it passes through include Venice and Puglia as well as other small places. These small places include the likes of La Serenissima, Alberobello, Comacchio (Little Venice), Loreto, and a few others. All these cities and features make the coast a popular destination for visitors from all around the world. On a larger scale, the coast can be divided into three parts namely the northern, central, and southern Adriatic coats. The northern coast stretches from Trieste to Po Delta, the central spans from Marche to Abruzzo, while the southern one stretches from Molise to Puglia.
The Albanian Adriatic Sea Coast spans from north to south from the Gulf of Drin to the Bay of Vlorë respectively. In the south, it ends at the beginning of the Albanian Ionian Sea Coast and the Albanian Riviera. The coastline has a total length of approximately 246.063 miles. About 1.5 million people live in cities and towns along the coastline with some of the large cities being Durrës in the north and Vlorë in the south.
The coastline has a wide range of biodiversity featuring diverse species of plants and animals. The southern portion of the coastline has many evergreen forests with trees such as pine as well as shrubs. In other parts of the coastline, there are several bird species such as the extremely endangered Dalmatian pelican. Another rare bird is the greater flamingo, which is the largest among the extant flamingo species. Other species of marine wildlife living along the coast include the likes of sea turtles (several of which are endangered), the Cuvier’s beaked whale, sperm whale, and others. Terrestrial wildlife includes the likes of the golden jackal, red fox, brown bear, grey wolf, wild boar, and other animals. Due to the rare nature of the flora and fauna, most of the areas are protected.
The climate of the coastline is a pleasant Mediterranean climate meaning that summers are hot while the winters are mild. All the four seasons of the weather are experienced in the region. For this reason and others, the tourism sector in Albania is crucial to the economy.
This coastline is approximately 154.721 miles long in the small country of Montenegro. The coastline stretches from Herceg Novi all the way to the town of Ulcinj. In between these two places, there are several other cities and towns including Perast, Kotor, Budva, Sveti Stefan Island, Stari Bar, and other places. A number of features including labyrinthine bays, Dinaric ridges, calm blue waters, and other jaw-dropping sights characterize the shoreline. Every year, visitors go to the country drawn by the beauty, the food, and the beautiful climate found along the coastline.
Slovenia and Bosnia–Herzegovina
In the case of Slovenia, the coastline has a length of about 29 miles while that of Bosnia and Herzegovina is much shorter with a length of about 13 miles. The short length of the Bosnia-Herzegovina coastline is due to the strange shape of neighboring Croatia.