Peru is a country found in the western parts of South America, with Lima being both the capital and the largest city. Amerindians are the largest ethnic group, making up 45% of Peru's population, while Mestizos (37%) and Whites (15%) are the other largest ethnic groups. The country is a unitary presidential state with a single legislative house. Peru has a large diversity of climates due to the merging of tropical latitude, topography variations, and two Ocean currents. The different surface features and several climates have produced a rich and diverse flora and fauna. The country is well known for its bird’s species. There is a total of 1,879 birds in Peru with 139 of them being endemic to the country while 91 species are globally threatened. This article takes a look at some of the native birds found in Peru.
This bird is a large hummingbird with a very long beak. Its natural habitats are tropical high altitude shrublands and rural gardens. The under parts are greenish with the tips of the tail being orange. The male has a blue throat and has a longer tail than the female. They are mostly found naturally steep, rocky and dry slopes with some vegetation in an elevation of 9,000 to 11,000 feet above sea level. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature's (IUCN's) Red List of Threatened Species rates the bird as endangered, and this is mainly due to human modification of their habitats. By 2012, the population of the birds was estimated at 1200 birds. The bird plays a significant role in pollinating of the woody shrubs and woods.
Peruvian Seaside Cinclodes
This bird is found along the coast of the Pacific and conducts all of its activities within a short distance from the seashore. It is highly adapted to deal with food and water with high saline levels.
The Puna thistletail is a tiny bird measuring an average of six inches in length, and is primarily brown and gray in coloration. The crown and the wings are brown while the tail, the under parts, and the throat are grayish. It is fairly common in Cuzco and Puno. The bird prefers dense undergrowth at the edge of the cloud forest and is commonly found at elevations of 8,400 to 10,000 feet above sea level. The bird feeds on arthropods found in understory foliage. The largest threat facing the bird is increased deforestation leading to habitat loss. The government of Peru has been advised to increase protected areas which are habitable by the birds and manage existing ones better.
The Iquitos Gnatcatcher is a critically endangered bird species with a minuscule and still declining population, largely due to habit loss. It is gray and has a uniformly gray throat and chest and black legs. The belly and the tail corners are white while the eye is black with a broken white eye ring. The population estimate of adult individuals is 50 to 374, while that of the total including juveniles is 70 to 400. The bird is mostly spotted in high humid forests and is threatened by increased habitat loss caused by deforestation. This bird has been accepted as the official bird of the Iquitos, and the local community has even held a festival to celebrate the bird with the aim of conserving it and barring it from extinction.
It is a medium short-tailed bird with a plumage that is almost entirely rufous (reddish brown), except that the sides of the head are black with a white coloration over the face, giving the appearance of a mask. This physical appearance is the origin of its name. The white face patch is more restricted at a younger age and is only limited to the area between the eye and the gape. Scientists have asserted that the bird might be a hybrid since for decades it had not been seen globally. The bird is found in lowlands below the elevation of 900 feet above the sea level. Human activity has not posed any real threat to the bird, and it is rated as nearly threatened by the IUCN.