Sex ratios are a means to compare the number of males to females in a population. There are two types. 'Sex ratio at birth' refers to the number of male births for every 100 female births. The 'population sex ratio' is the number of males for every 100 females, and is what is usually used. This depends on 'sex ratio at birth', mortality of deaths at different life-stages, and migration. Given the same nutrition and health-care, women tend to have better survival rates and longevity than men. Sex ratios of 97.9 to 100.3 is usual in western societies.
Countries Where Women Outnumber Men
The countries that made up the former USSR are however an exception to the above rule. They have the lowest males to females ratios in the world. Martinique and Latvia have less than 85 men to every 100 women. Lithuania, Curacao, Guadeloupe, Ukraine, Armenia, Russia, Belarus have sex ratios ranging from 85.30 to 86.80 for every 100 women. Estonia has 88 men for every 100 hundred women.
Violence Effecting Sex Ratio
As in other societies, the involvement of men in violent activities in the erstwhile Soviet countries is one of the reasons for their low numbers as well as substance abuse.
During the II World War, men making up 14% of the population were killed in this region. In Russia, in the 1950s after the war, there were only 76.6 men per 100 women. In the following decades, the number of men increased up to 88 per 100 women, but after 1995 the sex ratio has again decreased.
The sex ratio has not improved much even after half a century because these countries also have a low fertility rate. As a consequence, the population still mirrors the sex-ratio of the older generation, where there were more women. The situation is made worse by the lower life-expectancy of young men in these regions. They have a life-expectancy of 64.2, 11 years less than their female counterparts whose life-expectancy is 75.6.
Alcohol Abuse, Smoking, And Disease
Alcohol-related incidents, suicides, and diseases are the main reasons for death among the younger men. Excessive consumption of alcohol, especially vodka is being cited as the 'top killer'. Nearly half the men (47%) drink more than one bottle of vodka per week, compared to 11% of women. This is a reflection of cultural values, as drinking by women is considered morally unacceptable by more than half the women (52%) and one-third of men (36%).
Moreover, heavy drinkers were found to be also prone to smoke more than low-alcohol consumers. Diseases associated with heavy drinking or smoking tend to be among the top health risks causing deaths. Cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, tuberculosis, pneumonia, liver cancer, other liver diseases, pancreatic disease, and acute ischaemic heart disease are the main fatal conditions.
Consequences Of A Skewed Sex Ratio
The sex-ratio varies in different age groups. The change in sex ratio resulted in lower rates of marriage and fertility. It was also accompanied by more out-of-wedlock-births, a rise in abortions among this group, and death of women due to these abortions. Children born to parents in a more gender balanced group tended to make better nutritional and health status than the group with lower men to women ratio.
Top 10 Countries With More Women Than Men
|Rank||Country||Men Per 100 Women|