1. Home
  2. Europe
  3. Montenegro
  4. Flags, Symbols, & Currencies of Montenegro

Flags, Symbols, & Currencies of Montenegro

The state of Montenegro has come a long way since breaking away from Yugoslavia in 1992 and Serbia in 2006 after an Independence Referendum. Its flag consists of a red banner, which is complemented with golden edges around it. The Montenegro Coat of Arms is placed at the center. Like in many nations around the world, the flag is of vital importance to Montenegro citizens and their government. The law of state symbols, published on July 12, 2004, and took effect the following day, backs up the flag's significance. The national flag of Montenegro has a height to length proportion of 1:2

The flag represents the culture of the people of Montenegro. The two-headed eagle with a crown shows the close relationship between the church and the state. There is a shield at the center, which acts as a protection to the eagle. The shield has a lion at the center that symbolizes the lion of Judah. The gold crown atop of the eagle heads has a cross on top of them to show that the country subscribes to Christianity. The eagle holds a scepter and a blue orb, which are symbols of power and authority just like the gold crown) as well as the royal history. These two objects also have the cross on them. The red color might symbolize the blood of Christ given the attachment to that the country has. It is also the symbol of the blood that was shed in the quest for independence. The gold surrounding the red color on all edges also shows the royal heritage that it once had.

History of The Flag of Montenegro

The flag of Montenegro has a rich history, and was of several variants. The variants consisted of different colors and symbols. In historical battles like the battle of Vucji in 1876, the flag was red and had a white cross at the center. It was an adaptation to the Serbian flag of battle used by Serbian armies. In 1905, Montenegro was granted independence and the flag recognized by the constitution was composed of three colors, red, blue and white. These colors were used in making clothing of the common citizens of Montenegro. When Montenegro became part of Yugoslavia, the flag changed to the original tricolor of the past and a communist red star at the center to show the new communist philosophy it had adopted. After the end of communism, the red star was removed, and it remained a tricolor flag up to 2004 when the current flag was adopted:

Historical Flags of Montenegro

Flag of the Kingdom of Montenegro

Red, blue, and white horizontal bands with the coat of arms at the center
Red, blue, and white horizontal bands with the coat of arms at the center

Flag of Montenegro SSR

Red, blue, and white horizontal bands with 5-pointed red star, edged with gold, at the center
Red, blue, and white horizontal bands with 5-pointed red star, edged with gold, at the center

Flag of the Republic of Montenegro

Red, light blue, and white horizontal bands
Red, light blue, and white horizontal bands

Symbols of Montenegro

National Coat of Arms of Montenegro

Montenegro's coat of arms consists of a golden, double-headed eagle, representing the unity of church and state. Protecting the eagle is a shield adorned with the Lion of Judah, symbolizing the Biblical theme of resurrection. Above the eagle rests a golden crown. Held in either claw is a scepter and blue orb.

National Anthem

  • Anthem Title: Oj, svijetla majska zoro ("Oh, bright dawn of May")
  • Music composer: Unknown
  • Lyricist: Unknown
  • Date of Adoption: 2004

Montenegro's national anthem is titled Oj, svijetla majska zoro ("Oh, bright dawn of May"). It is a 19th century song whose writer and composer is unknown. However, the lyrics were partly edited by  Sekula Drljević. The original version, known as Oj, Junaštva Svjetla Zoro, oj ("Oh, Bright Dawn of Bravery, oh!"), played publicly for the first time in 1863. The current anthem was adopted in 2004, following Montenegro's separation from Serbia.

Oj, svijetla majska zoro (Latin)

𝄆 Oj svijetla majska zoro. 𝄇

𝄆 Majko naša Crna Goro. 𝄇

𝄆 Sinovi smo tvog stijenja 𝄇

𝄆 I čuvari tvog poštenja 𝄇

Volimo vas, brda tvrda

I stravične vaše klance

Koji nikad ne poznaše

Sramotnoga ropstva lance.

𝄆 Majko naša Crna Goro! 𝄇

𝄆 Oj svijetla majska zoro. 𝄇

𝄆 Majko naša Crna Goro. 𝄇

Dok lovćenskoj našoj misli

Naša sloga daje krila,

Biće gorda, biće slavna

Domovina naša mila.

Rijeka će naših vala

Uskačući u dva mora

Glas nositi okeanu,

Da je vječna Crna Gora.

Glas nositi okeanu,

𝄆 Da je vječna Crna Gora! 𝄇

Oh, bright dawn of May

𝄆 Oh, bright dawn of May. 𝄇

𝄆 Our mother Montenegro. 𝄇

𝄆 We are sons of your rocks 𝄇

𝄆 And keepers of your honesty 𝄇

We love you, the rocky hills

And your awesome gorges

That never came to know

The chains of shameful slavery.

𝄆 Our mother Montenegro! 𝄇

𝄆 Oh, bright dawn of May. 𝄇

𝄆 Our mother Montenegro. 𝄇

While our unity gives wings

to our Lovćen cause,

Proud shall be, celebrated will be

Our dear homeland.

A river of our waves,

Jumping into two seas,

Will bear voice to the ocean,

May eternal be our Montenegro!

Will bear voice to the ocean,

𝄆 May eternal be our Montenegro! 𝄇

The Currency of Montenegro is the Euro

Although Montenegro's Central Bank of Montenegro does not issue currency, the country is within the Eurozone and uses the euro as official currency. Montenegro adopted the euro in 2002 to replace the Deutsch mark, without the objection of the European Central Bank. The euro is used unilaterally, since the country has no official status in the European Union. For a country to introduce the euro as its own currency, it has to be a member of the European Union, a status that Montenegro is yet to achieve. The European Commission and the European Central Bank have continued to raise their concern on Montenegro’s unilateral use of euro, prompting Montenegro to be granted candidate status to join the EU. The government of Montenegro is also in the process of adopting certain elements that fulfill the condition for further use of the euro, including adopting fiscal rules. The Central Bank of Montenegro is also not part of the euro system, and thus is unable to mint coins. The euro currency used in Montenegro has no distinctive national design.


The euro is divided into euro cents, with 100 cents as the smallest denomination. Euro coins are available in several denominations, including 1c, 2c, 5c, 10c, 20, 50c, €1, and €2. All the coins have similar features, with the only difference being the denomination. 


Euro banknotes have similar designs on both sides and are issued in the denomination of €5, €10, €20, €50, €100, € 200, and €500. However, each note has its color, with each dedicated to an artistic period in the history of European architecture. Other features include gateways or windows on observe and bridges on the reverse side. 

euro Banknote

20 euro Banknote
20 euro Banknote

Historical Currencies of Montenegro

Yugoslav Dinar

Yugoslav dinar was the currency used by the Yugoslav states, including the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (including Montenegro), Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The dinar was in use from 1918 to 2003 and was subdivided into 100 paras. In 1941, Yugoslavia was invaded and split up and the Croatian kuna was introduced in the Independent State of Croatia, while the Serbian dinar was used in Nedic’s Serbia. When Yugoslavia reconstituted in 1944, the Yugoslav dinar was reintroduced as the common currency. Between 1990 and 1992, the constituent countries began to break away from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, with four countries declaring independence and issuing their own currency. In 1999, Montenegro decided to adopt Deutsche mark as its official currency, alongside the dinar. In November 2000, the dinar was dropped, and the Deutsch mark became the sole currency.

Deutsch Mark

Deutsch mark was the currency used in West Germany, and later unified Germany, between 1948 and 2002. It was also the official currency of Montenegro between 1999 to 2001. The currency was first issued in 1948 to replace the Reichsmark and served as German’s official currency until the adoption of the euro. In November 1999, Montenegro adopted the Deutsch mark as a parallel currency in an effort to distance itself from the Yugoslavian government. The currency was also adopted to avoid the looming inflation within the country. The Deutsch mark was used as the de facto currency in private and banking transactions throughout the country. Montenegro replaced the Deutsch mark with the euro in 2002.

Deutsch Mark Coin

Deutsch 1 Mark Coin
Deutsch 1 Mark Coin

Latest by WorldAtlas