The peafowl is a species of bird that belongs to the Phasianidae family. There are three types of peafowl, two of which are from the Pavo genus, while the third is from Afropavo genus. The Pavo species are native to Asia and the Afropavo species is native to Africa. The three species of peafowl are described below.
3. Indian Peafowl
The Indian peafowl, Pavo cristatus, is a species native to South Asia and is India’s national bird. It is known for its beautiful appearance, and has therefore been introduced to many other parts of the world. Indian peafowl males are brightly colored and strikingly beautiful. They are predominantly blue in color and have a long train of elongated covert feathers on the upper-tail, which have vibrant eyespots. While mating, males spread the train of feathers like a fan around their body and dance. The female Indian peafowl, however, lacks the train of feathers, have a dull brown plumage, and their lower neck is greenish. The Indian peacock has been the subject of many artists, writers, and poets around the world. In India, the peacock motif can be seen in many of the country's monuments. The species lives in forests or cultivated land, where they feed on both vegetative matter and rodents or reptiles. The Indian peacock’s call is distinctive and is often regarded as an indication for the presence of a predator, such as a tiger. The Indian peafowl is a protected species that is categorized as "Least Concern" (LC) on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List.
2. Green Peafowl
The green peafowl, Pavo muticus, is a species native to Southeast Asia. It lives in a wide range of habitats, including tropical and subtropical primary and secondary forests, grasslands, and the edge of farmlands. Unlike the Indian peafowl, both sexes of green peafowl are similar in appearance. Both have elongated upper-tail coverts, but males have a longer train of feathers and are more brightly decorated with eyespots, while females have coverts that are green in color. Green peafowls are omnivorous in nature and consume plant matter, reptiles, rodents, and amphibians. Due to indiscriminate hunting, the green peafowl has been labeled as "Endangered" (EN) on the IUCN Red List.
1. Congo Peafowl
The Congo peafowl, Afropavo congensis, is a species endemic to the Congo Basin in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and is the country's national bird. Often considered less impressive in appearance than the Indian and green peafowls, the Congo peafowl resemble immature Asian peafowls. Males have blue, green, and violet feathers and a bare red neck. The Congo peafowl is omnivorous and its diet consists predominantly of insects and fruits. The species is labeled as "Vulnerable" (VU) on the IUCN Red List. The population of the Congo peafowl is currently estimated as between 2,500 to 9,000 adults.