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Peru History Timeline

1500s - 1800s
  • (1523-33) Francisco Pizarro defeated Incas
  • (1535) Francisco Pizarro established Lima, made Lima capital of Viceroyalty of Peru
  • (1780) Mestizos, led by Tupac Amaru II, revolted against Spanish rule
  • (1821) General Jose de San Martin captured Lima from Spain; proclaimed Peru independent
  • (1824) Peru defeated Spain, became last colony in Latin America to gain its independence
  • (1836-39) Peru joined Bolivian confederation
  • (1849-74) 100,000 Chinese workers arrived in Peru as menial laborers
  • (1866) Peru won brief war with Spain
  • (1879-83) Chile defeated Peru, Bolivia during the Pacific war, Peru lost province of Tacna
  • (1884) Treaty of Ancon gave Peruvian province of Tarapaca
1900s
  • (1924) Victor Raul Haya de la Torre set up nationalist American Revolutionary Popular Alliance (APRA) while exiled in Mexico
  • (1929) Chile returned Tacna to Peru
  • (1941) Brief border war with Ecuador; under 1942 Rio Protocol, Ecuador ceded tdisputed territory to Peru
  • (1945) Civilian government led by center-left APRA assumed power after free elections
  • (1948) Military coup installed General Manuel A. Odria as president
  • (1963) Peru returned to civilian rule; Fernando Belaunde Terry president
  • (1968) General Juan Velasco Alvardo seized power in military coup
  • (1975) Velasco ousted in coup led by General Quechua; language of Inca made official language along with Spanish
  • (1980) Peru returned to civilian rule with Fernando Belaunde as president
  • (1981) Peru fought border war with Ecuador over Cordillera del Condor
  • (1982) Debt crisis; military crackdown on guerrillas, drug traffickers escalated deaths and "disappearances"
  • (1985) APRA candidate Alan Garcia Perez won presidential election; campaign started to remove military, police "old guard"
  • (1987) New liberated movement led by Mario Vargas Llosa blocked plans to nationalize banks as Peru faced bankruptcy
  • (1988) Peru sought help from International Monetary Fund
  • (1990) Alberto Fujimori defeated Mario Vargas Llosa for president; Fujimori instituted severe austerity measures, privatization programs
  • (1992) Fujimori dissolved congress
  • (1993) New constitution adopted, allowed Fujimori to seek re-election
  • (1995) Fujimori re-elected to second term
  • (1996) Tupac Amaru guerrillas seized hostages at Japanese Ambassador's residence
  • (1997) Special Forces freed hostages held at Japanese ambassador's residence; El Nino caused severe drought
  • (1998) Border agreement with Ecuador established

2000s

  • (2000) Intelligence chief Vladimiro Montesinos caught on video, tried to bribe opposition politician; President Fujimori resigned, congress declared him "morally unfit" to govern; head of congress Valentin Paniagua sworn in as interim president
  • (2001) Alejandro Toledo Peru's elected first president of native Indian origin; fireworks explosion in downtown Lima ignited a horrific fire, killed 290 people
  • (2002) Alberto Fujimori accused of treason; former intelligence chief Vladimiro Montesinos sentenced nine years in prison for corruption
  • (2003) Congress requested Fujimori extradition from Japan, issued new charges of arms trafficking, torture, student disappearances
  • (2004) Vladimiro Montesinos sentenced to 15 years for corruption, embezzlement, conspiracy; inauguration of major gas pipeline connected jungle gas field with Lima
  • (2005) President Toledo found guilty of electoral fraud; government compensated guerrilla war victims; former president Fujimori arrested in Chile; U.S. and Peru reached a free trade agreement
  • (2006) Alan Garcia won presidency
  • (2007) Parliament granted President Garcia emergency powers - allowed him to rule on issues related to drug trafficking and organized crime
  • (2008) President Garcia appointed Yehude Simon, a leftist regional governor from outside the ruling party, new prime minister
  • (2009) Security forces, indigenous people protested against land ownership laws opening up oil and gas resources to foreign companies; Prime Minister Yehude Simon resigned in response to violence; Javier Velasquez Quesquen appointed new prime minister; ties with Chile strained by Chilean military exercise staged close to the disputed borders; Peruvian air force officer accused of spying for the Chilean military

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This page was last updated on April 7, 2017.