England

England Timeline

BC

  • (5000 - 2000 BC) Stone Age settlers arrived by crossing English Channel, farming introduced
  • (2200 BC) Bleaker People constructed ring of stones at Stonehenge
  • (600 - 50 BC) Celtic peoples established their culture throughout the British Isles; Druids populated Wales
  • (55 BC) Julius Caesar attempted invasion of Britain, forced to withdraw
  • (54 BC) Julius Caesar attempted second invasion; captured St. Albans

0 - 300s

  • (43 AD) Roman Emperor Claudius and 40,000 troops invaded, Britannia became a Roman province
  • (61 AD) Queen Boadicea organized rebellion against Romans, was defeated
  • (120 AD) Emperor Hadrian ordered wall to be built to mark Roman territory of Britain in north
  • (211 AD) Britain divided into two parts - Britannia Superior and Britannia Inferior
  • (254 AD) St. Alban beheaded, became first Britain Christian martyr
  • (290 AD) Carausius rebelled against Roman Empire, took control of Britain and North Gaul
  • (296 AD) Emperor Caesar Constantius Chlorus invaded Britain, recovered it for the Roman Empire
  • (306) Constantine declared Emperor of Rome
  • (360 - 369) Saxons from Northern Germany attacked Roman-occupied Britain; Scot invaders attacked northern Britain; Romans retained control

400s - 600s

  • (410) Roman troops withdrew from Britannia; Roman occupation officially over
  • (440 - 450) Assorted tribes including the Picts, Saxons, Angles and Jutes invaded unprotected Britain
  • (477) Saxon chief, Ella, captured fortress at Anderida; proclaimed himself king of Sussex
  • (525) AD (date) system introduced; Saxons attacked between London and St. Albans; formed Kingdom of Essex
  • (556) Saxons set up seven kingdoms in Britain
  • (597) Saint Augustine sent to Britain to convert English to Christianity
  • (613) Anglo-Saxons conquered all of Britain; land divided into 30 kingdoms
  • (617) Edwin, King of Northumbria, conquered England
  • (617 - 685) Northumbrian kingdom reigned supreme
  • (620) Ireland invaded by Norsemen
  • (663) Plague outbreak across British Isles
  • (668) English Church established

700s - 900s

  • (730 - 821) Mercia kingdom reigned
  • (741) York burned
  • (779) Offa's Dyke (huge earthworks) completed from River Dee to River Wye
  • (793) First Viking raid on Britain at Lindisfarne
  • (802 - 839) Kingdom of Wessex gained control of most of England
  • (836) Vikings and West Welsh defeated in battle at Hengists Down near Plymouth
  • (866) Vikings, the "Great Army", invaded England
  • (867) Northumbria captured by Vikings
  • (870) Vikings sacked York; captured Nottingham
  • (836) Northmen and West Welsh defeated in battle at Hengists Down near Plymouth
  • (872) Vikings defeated Wessex army at Wilton; conquered Mercia
  • (897) King Alfred built first English fleet
  • (926) Eastern England recaptured by Saxons
  • (955) Northumbrian Danes defeated
  • (957) After revolt, Edgar named King
  • (980) Vikings again invaded England
  • (994) Danes and Norwegians attacked London
1000s
  • (1002) St. Brice's Day Massacre - King Ethelred ordered all Danes in England be killed
  • (1012) Danes captured Canterbury
  • (1013) Danes captured all of England, King of Danes, Sweyn, made King of England
  • (1016) Danish King Canute became King of England
  • (1035) King Canute died; England divided between three sons, Sweyn - Norway, Hardicanute - Denmark and South England, Harold Harefoot - North England
  • (1042) Edward the Confessor became King
  • (1066) Battle of Hastings occurred; William I crowned King of England
  • (1086) Domesday Book (survey of England) finished
  • (1087) King William I died; son, William II King
  • (1096) The Crusades began (lasted 150 years)
1100s
  • (1100) King William II killed; brother Henry I became King
  • (1106) King Henry I conquered Normandy
  • (1154) Henry II crowned King, first in Plantagenet line
  • (1170) Thomas Becket (Archbishop of Canterbury) murdered after quarrel with Henry II
  • (1189) King Henry II ousted; Richard the Lionheart (Richard I) crowned King
  • (1199) King Richard I died in battle; John new King
1200s
  • (1204) Philip II of France seized Normandy
  • (1215) Magna Carta (the Great Charter) completed
  • (1224) France declared war on England
  • (1259) Treaty of Paris signed; war with France ended
  • (1272) Henry III died; Edward I crowned King
  • (1282 - 1283) Edward I conquered Wales
  • (1284) Wales annexed to England
  • (1290) King Edward I expelled Jews from England
  • (1296) Edward I invaded Scotland; Scotland became dependency of England
  • (1297) William Wallace of Scotland, defeated English at Stirling Bridge
  • (1298) Edward I invaded Scotland; defeated Scots
1300s
  • (1307) King Edward I died; Edward II succeeded to throne; withdrew from Scotland
  • (1314) English defeated at Battle at Bannockburn
  • (1318) Scottish forces invaded North England
  • (1320) Declaration of Arbroath signed by earls and barons of Scotland, rejected English rule
  • (1327) Edward II abdicated throne; Edward III King
  • (1328) Edward III made peace with Scotland; treaty of Edinburgh signed
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England Photographs

Stone AgeJulius CaesarCrusadesBattle of HastingsWar of the Roses Photos used are from public domain sources and from en.wikipedia.orgGreat Fire of LondonHenry VIIIMagna CartaMayflowerKing George III Photos used are from public domain sources and from en.wikipedia.orgBattle of TrafalgarSuez CanalGreat ExhibitionTitanicWinston Churchill Photos used are from public domain sources and from en.wikipedia.org