Azerbaijan is a mountainous country, with the Caucasus Mountains covering the north and central regions.
Many snow-capped peaks exceed 12,000 ft., with Baza-Dyuzi the highest point, at 14,698 ft. (4,480m).
Moving southwest, the Lesser Caucasus cross the land, stretching on into Armenia, and in the far-south, the Talish Mountains help form its border with Iran.
A low flood plain covers the south-central and east, ending at the Caspian Sea; much of it below sea level.
Baku, the capital city, sits on the Abseron Yasaqligi (or Apsheron Peninsula), that juts hook-line into the Caspian Sea
Significant rivers include the Alazani, Aras and Kura, and the Mangachevir Reservoir is the largest inland body of water.
|Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia, with a small European portion north of the Caucasus range|
|40 30 N, 47 30 E|
|total: 86,600 sq km |
land: 86,100 sq km
water: 500 sq km
note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991
Area - comparative:
|slightly smaller than Maine|
|total: 2,013 km |
border countries: Armenia (with Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km
|0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (800 km, est.)|
|dry, semiarid steppe|
|large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland) (much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) in west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea|
|lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m |
highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m
|petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, alumina|
|arable land: 19.63% |
permanent crops: 2.71%
other: 77.66% (2001)
|14,550 sq km (1998 est.)|
Environment - current issues:
|local scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air, soil, and water pollution; soil pollution results from oil spills, from the use of DDT as a pesticide, and from toxic defoliants used in the production of cotton|
Environment - international agreements:
|party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands |
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
|both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are landlocked|