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Scotland Timeline

BC - 100s
  • (500 BC) Crannogs (houses built on stilts) began appearing on lochs
  • (200 BC to 200 AD) Defensive towers occupied
  • (80 AD) Romans invadeded Scotland
  • (83) Romans invaded northern Scotland
  • (105) Romans withdrew from Scotland
  • (122) Construction of Hadrian's Wall began
  • (143) Romans built Antonine Wall
  • (163) Romans withdrew south to Hadrian's Wall
200s - 600s
  • (250) Raids took place by Irish in western Scotland
  • (368) Picts, Scots and Saxons attacked London
  • (500) Migration from Ireland; Kingdom of Dalriada established
  • (547) Angles captured British fortress at Bamburgh, founded Bernicia
  • (570) St. Columba founded monastery at Iona
  • (604) Bernicia and Diera united, formed Northumbia Kingdom
  • (638) Edinburgh captured by Angles
  • (685) Northumbria defeated by Picts at Battle of Dunnichen
700s - 1000s
  • (717) Ionan clergy expelled from Pictland
  • (795) First Viking Raid on Iona
  • (839) Vikings defeated Picts
  • (839) Kenneth MacAlpin became king; Scots and Picts united as one nation
  • (858) Kenneth MacAlpin died
  • (870) Dumbarton Rock captured by Vikings
  • (890) Vikings captured Pict fortress Dunnottar
  • (937) Scots and Vikings defeated at Battle of Brunanburh by English
  • (945) Scotland given Cumbria by Danish King Edmund in return for military support
  • (954) Scottish King Indulf captured Edinburgh
  • (1018) King Malcolm II defeated Northumbrians at Battle of Carhma; first modern border formed between Scotland and England
  • (1040) MacBeth crowned king after defeating Duncan I at Battle of Pitgaveny
  • (1054) Malcolm Canmore, King Duncan I's son, took control of southern Scotland
  • (1057) Canmore defeated MacBeth at Battle of Lumphanan
  • (1072) Scotland invaded by Normans; Treaty of Abernethy completed
  • (1079) Another invasion by Normans; Treaty of Abernethy reimposed
1100s - 1200s
  • (1124) David I became king, introduced feudal system of landholding
  • (1138) English defeated Scots at Battle of Standard
  • (1157) Henry II of England persuaded Malcolm II of Scotland to give Cumbria and Northumbia to English
  • (1164) Somerled, King of Hebrides, defeated by Scottish at Battle of Renfrew
  • (1165) William the Lion (William I) became King of Scotland
  • (1174) William I captured by English at Northumbria; Treaty of Falaise adopted - King of Scots subordinate to King of England; Scottish castles to be occupied by English
  • (1237) Treaty of York established southern border of Scotland
  • (1263) Scots defeated Norwegians at Largs
  • (1266) Norway ceded Hebrides to Scotland in Treaty of Perth
  • (1292) Edward I of England named John Balliol to Scottish throne
  • (1295) Auld Alliance signed between Scotland and France (one of world's oldest defense treaties)
  • (1296) English defeated Scots at Battle of Dunbar; England annexed Scotland; Scottish coronation stone "Stone of Destiny" moved to England
  • (1297) William Wallace led Scots at Battle of Stirling Bridge, defeated English
  • (1298) English defeated Wallace and Scots at Battle of Falkirk
  • (1303) Army of 8,000 Scots defeated English army of 30,000 at Battle of Roslin; Edward I invaded Scotland
  • (1305) William Wallace betrayed, turned over to English and executed
  • (1306) King Robert I ("The Bruce") crowned
  • (1313) Robert the Bruce invaded Isle of Man
  • (1314) Robert the Bruce defeated Edward II's army at Battle of Bannockburn
  • (1315) Robert the Bruce invaded Ireland; his brother declared king
  • (1328) Treaty of Edinburgh signed, recognized Scotland's independence; ended 30 years of wars
1300s continued
  • (1329) Robert the Bruce died; five year old son, David II, became King
  • (1332) Scots defeated by English at Battle of Duppin Moor; Edward Balliol crowned King of Scots; Balliol fled the country after attack at Annan
  • (1333) Edward III invaded Scotland; defeated Scots
  • (1338) English gave up siege of Dunbar Castle
  • (1349) Black Death killed over 200,000 in Scotland
  • (1371) Robert II became first Scottish Stewart King
  • (1402) Scots defeated by English at Battle of Homildon Hill
  • (1406) Scottish King James I captured by English
  • (1421) French and Scottish troops defeated English at Anjou, France
  • (1423) Treaty of London released James I after 18 years of captivity
  • (1437) King James I assassinated in Perth; James II (aged 6) crowned King
  • (1457) King James II banned "futeball"
  • (1460) James II killed at battle of Roxburgh Castle by exploding cannon
  • (1472) Shetland and Okney became part of Scotland
  • (1482) English invaded southern Scotland; took Berwick-upon-Tweed and Berwick Castle
  • (1488) King James III killed at Battle of Sauchieburn
  • (1496) James IV raided Northumberland
  • (1503) King James IV married Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry VII of England
  • (1512) Scottish became French citizens, French became Scottish citizens in treaty with France
  • (1513) King James IV, thousands of Scots killed at Flodden; King James V (aged one) crowned
  • (1522) England declared war on Scotland and France
  • (1528) Patrick Hamilton, Protestant martyr, burned at stake in St. Andrews
  • (1542) Mary Queen of Scots, born; King James V died
  • (1543) Mary Queen of Scots crowned (nine months old)
  • (1544) Battle of the Shirts between two clans killed nearly a thousand
  • (1547) English defeated Scots at Battle of Pinkie; destroyed much of Dundee
  • (1548) English built major fortification at Haddington; French rescued Mary Queen of Scots (1558) Mary Queen of Scots married Francois, Dauphin of France
  • (1559) King of France died; Mary Queen of Scot's husband became King of France
  • (1560) Treaty of Edinburgh withdrew French and English forces from Scotland; Scottish Parliament legislated Protestant reformation
  • (1561) Mary Queen of Scots left France, returned to Scotland
  • (1565) Mary Queen of Scots married Lord Darnley
  • (1566) King James VI born
  • (1567) Lord Darnley assassinated, Mary Queen of Scots abdicated throne; James VI crowned (one year old)
  • (1568) Mary fled to England
  • (1582) King James VI taken prisoner at Ruthven Castle
  • (1583) King James VI escaped
  • (1584) Parliament declared James VI head of church and state
  • (1586) Mary Queen of Scots, arrested, tried for treason in plot to kill Queen Elizabeth of England
  • (1587) Mary Queen of Scots beheaded

Scotland Photographs

CrannogHadrian's WallEdinburgh CastleKing James IVWilliam WallaceRobert the BruceMary Queen of ScotsDolly the sheepQueen Elizabeth II Photos used are from public domain sources and from en.wikipedia.org