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Netherlands History Timeline

50 BC - 800 AD
  • (50 BC - 400 AD) Romans ruled the southern part of Netherlands
  • (1 - 100 AD) Frisians settled in northern Netherlands
  • (600 - 700) Frisians clashed with Franks
  • (838) Large portion of northwest Netherlands flooded; over 2,400 died
1100s - 1300s
  • (1170) First All Saints' Flood inundated Netherlands and Zuider Zee region
  • (1212) Large flood at Noordholland killed 60,000
  • (1219) St. Marcellus Flood killed 36,000
  • (1287) Zuider Zee seawall collapsed; 50,000 died
  • (1299) Count of Holland gained control of Zeeland
  • (1300's) French Dukes of Burgundy united all of the Low Countries
  • (1301) Holland defeated Lichtenberg at Battle of Breukelen
  • (1345) Frisian defeated Dutch at Warns
  • (1362) Storm surge kills 25,000; sixty parishes destroyed in Slesvig
1400s
  • (1404) First St. Elizabeth's Flood occurred; towns washed away
  • (1421) Second St. Elizabeth's Flood; dike broke, villages swept away; many thousands died
  • (1432) Zeeland became part of Low Countries under Phillip the Good of Burgundy
  • (1460) Episcopal palace at Atrecht held witch burnings
  • (1477) Mary of Burgundy, heiress of all Netherlands, married Maximilian I of Habsburg family of Austria
  • (1489 - 1490) Plague killed thousands
  • (1492) German mercenaries killed 232 at Bread and Cheese rebellion
1500s
  • (1500's) Protestant Reformation swept across Europe; Dutch Protestants persecuted by Roman Catholics
  • (1511) Portuguese traders reached Banda Islands
  • (1516) King Charles I of Spain rules Netherlands
  • (1517) Protestants burned at the stake
  • (1519) King Charles I of Spain became Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V
  • (1520) Public burning of books took place in Louvain
  • (1521) Emperor Charles V banned wooden buildings in Amsterdam
  • (1524) Henry Van Zutphen, Dutch Protestant martyr, burned at stake
  • (1527) Wendelmoet Claesdochter first Dutch woman burned at stake as heretic
  • (1540) Emperor Charles V beat uprising against taxes in Ghent; nine leaders beheaded, one hanged
  • (1556) Emperor Charles V gave control of Low Countries to Son, King Philip II of Spain
  • (1567) Duke of Alba became guardian of Netherlands
  • (1568) William I, Prince of Orange, led revolt against Spanish government; Duke of Alba declared William of Orange an outlaw; Holy office condemned all inhabitants of Netherlands to death as heretics; Eighty Years' War(Dutch Revolt) began
  • (1568) King Phillip II of Spain banned foreign Dutch students; tidal wave in North Sea destroyed sea walls, over 1,000 killed
  • (1572) William of Orange became viceroy of Holland, Friesland, Utrecht; town of Naarden surrendered to Spanish, town burned, all residents massacred
  • (1574) Storm broke Leiden dike, 20,000 Spanish soldiers drowned
  • (1576) Netherlands' 17 provinces united in Pacification of Ghent; formed federation to maintain peace; Spanish forces attached Antwerp (the Spanish Fury)
  • (1579) Treaty of Utrecht signed, beginning of Dutch Republic; Friesland joined Union of Utrecht
  • (1580) States of Utrecht outlawed Catholic worship
  • (1581) Dutch declared independence from Spain
  • (1584) Gregorian (New World) calendar adopted; William of Orange assassinated; succeeded by son, Maurice of Nassau
  • (1585) Antwerp sacked by Duke of Parma

1600s

  • (1602) Dutch East India Company formed in Jakarta, Indonesia
  • (1604) Spanish took Ostend (northwest Belgium) from Netherlands
  • (1620) Pilgrims left Netherlands, landed in Massachusetts
  • (1624) Dutchman Cornelius Drebbel created world's first submarine
  • (1630 - 1654) Dutch conquered Brazil
  • (1648) Spain recognized Dutch independence
  • (1652) War broke out between Netherlands and England
  • (1661) Holland sold Brazil to Portugal
  • (1665) King Charles II of England declared war on Netherlands; British captured Banda Island of Run from Dutch
  • (1667) Dutch fleet sailed Thames, threatened London; burned three ships; William of Orange replaced James Stuart; Peace of Breda ended war; Surinam ceded to England by Dutch in exchange for New York
  • (1672) King Louis XIV of France invaded Netherlands; sluices opened in Holland to save Amsterdam from French
  • (1677) William of Orange married cousin Mary(daughter of James, Duke of York)
  • (1688) King Louis XIV of France declared war on Netherlands; King James II of England fled London, abdicated throne; King William (of Orange) and Queen Mary became rulers
  • (1689) King William III joined League of Augsburg and Netherlands, formed Grand Alliance to counter war of aggression by King Louis XIV
  • (1690) French defeated Grand Alliance forces at Fleurus in Netherlands
  • (1692) English and Dutch fleet beat France at Battle of La Hogue; French forces defeated English at Battle of Steenkerke in Netherlands
  • (1693) At Battle of Neerwinden in Netherlands, French destroyed Grand Alliance army
  • (1697) Treaty of Ryswick signed; ended war between france and Grand Alliance
1700s
  • (1701) England, Austria, Netherlands formed Alliance against France
  • (1741) Dutch protested against bad quality of bread
  • (1745) England, Austria, Saxony, Netherlands formed alliance against Russia; French forces defeated Ango-Dutch army at Fontenoy
  • (1747) French forces defeated Ango-Dutch at Battle of Lauffeld; French captured Bergen-op-Zoom; England and Netherlands singed military treaty
  • (1748) Riot broke out in Amsterdam after public execution; over 200 killed
  • (1780 - 1783) Netherlands at war with England
  • (1784) Peace of Versailles ended war between France, England, Holland; Holland banned orange clothes
  • (1788) Alliance between Britain, Prussia, Netherlands ratified
  • (1793) France declared war on Britain and Netherlands; French conquered Geertruidenberg, Netherlands

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This page was last updated on April 7, 2017.