Environment

Native Amphibians Of Kazakhstan

Most of Kazakhstan's amphibians can be found living around the rivers in its northern highlands near the border with Russian Siberia.

The territory of Kazakhstan consists mainly of deserts, semi-deserts, and steppes, with smaller expanses of forested areas. Its deserts are immense, and the mountain peaks are high and harsh. The country's wildlife consists of various species of rare and unique animals and plants. Kazakhstan is home to around 12 species of amphibians, many of which are in the Red Data Book of endangered species. The government is trying to conserve the rare and native species of its wildlife in reserves and parks.

Central Asiatic Frog (Rana Asiatica)

These frogs have webbed toes, vomerine teeth, a forked tongue, and a sharp snout. Their skins are smooth at the flank and thighs. Their bodies are gray or brown with dark spots. The male frog has nuptial pads on the first finger and small vocal sacs. They inhabit wooded areas of river valleys in mountains, steppes, and deserts. A small population occurs in swampy areas meadows, bush lands, and other wetlands. The wetlands suitable for its survival always seasonally dry up, and hence they must keep on migrating from one water body to another. The frog is common in parts of China, but its population is decreasing in Kazakhstan. During droughts and unfavorable environmental changes, they hibernate into stagnant or slow moving water, and rarely on land. Hibernation is usually in groups of several dozen individuals. They breed in water, and the frogspawn contains 600 to 1,700 eggs. They do not make breeding choruses in the manner many other toads and amphibians do. Adult frogs feed exclusively on terrestrial arthropods. Tadpoles eat algae, pieces of higher plants and small aquatic invertebrates. Species found in arid zones are very sensitive to environmental changes including pollution, drainage, flooding, and urbanization. Kazakhstan lists it in the Red Data Book as an endangered species and plans for its protection are underway.

Central Asian Salamander (Ranodon Sibiricus)

The salamander is yellow-brown, olive, or gray in color. Some have dark spots. Their bellies are pale pink. Their colors change according to the environment, and they look darker in water and lighter on land. They have round and robust bodies, with a flat head and bulging eyes. They majorly occupy temperate forests, tundra, temperate grassland, rivers, and wet areas of freshwater and spring. They prefer cold water thus choose a narrow altitude range of between 1,400 meters and 2,800 meters above sea level. The salamander is sensitive to many elements of the environment and will inhabit very few waters of the mountain water region. They live in Junggarian Alatau in southern Kazakhstan and northwestern Xinjiang in China. They confine themselves to water during the breeding season. After breeding, salamanders move to land and are nocturnal. They feed on aquatic animals. Threats include habitat loss which is due to droughts and human activity. Their conserved population is in Verhnykokuysk protected area. However, they are not protected by law as part of the Kazakhstan's special protected natural territories.

Xinjiang Toad (Pseudepidalea Pewzowi)

The toad has a strong body, and short legs and snout. The crown is smooth and has no bony ridges their skins are dry and have warts. They inhabit temperate forests, dry scrub lands, grasslands, freshwater marshes, and arable lands. They are found in China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan. They lay their eggs in places with slow moving waters such as ponds, pools, and oases. There are no major threats to the species since they exist in large populations and have high adaptation capabilities.

European Green Toad (buro Viridis)

They have green or dark brown spots on their backs. Most of them have white stomachs. Their backs are light gray, cream, or olive. Two green stripes run from the eyes to the nostrils. Their hind limbs are short and have little webs. Female toads are larger than male ones. They lay around 9,000 to 15,000 eggs together at a time. The toad lives in steppes, mountains, semi-deserts, grassland, forests, scrub lands, and urban areas. They also occur in parts of Estonia, Russia, and Greece. They change their color depending on the changes in heat and light. During breeding, the male toad develops nuptial pads on the first three fingers, usually used to grab the female when mating. They feed on insects and other invertebrates such as crickets, mealworms, earthworms, butterflies, and caterpillars. The toad inhabits both wet and dry areas and is tolerant to dry conditions hence it is not under any serious threat.

Asiatic Toad (Bufo danatensies)

The habitats of the Asiatic toad (Bufo danatensies) are mainly in the lake basins of Zaysan and Alakol, and the toad also occupies the lowlands and mountains. There is no comprehensive strategy for its protection, and neither are their protected breeding sites for this species.

Favorable Habitats

The native amphibians of Kazakhstan are mostly aquatic, especially when it is time for breeding. Most of them prefer freshwater areas and marshes. After breeding most become terrestrial and only hibernate during extreme environmental changes.

Native Amphibians Of Kazakhstan

Native Amphibians of KazakhstanScientific Name
Asiatic Toad
Bufo danatensis
Central Asiatic Frog
Rana asiatica
Central Asian Salamander
Ranodon sibiricus
Pseudepidalea pewzowi
Pseudepidalea pewzowi
European Green Toad
Bufo viridis

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