During the 3rd century BC conflict arose between the Illyrians and Romans, and by 9 AD the Romans had completely annexed the region.
Following the split of the Roman Empire in the late 300's, the Ostrogoths took over, only to hand over the region to the Alans and Huns in the preceding years.
During the Early Middle Ages, Emperor Justinian conquered the area, and claimed it for the Byzantine Empire. And unfortunately for Bosnia and Herzegovina, this continuous exchanging of hands didn't stop there, the Avars and Slavs quickly invaded them.
However, the most significant conquest came from the Ottoman Empire in 1463.
With the Ottoman's came monumental changes within the country's political and cultural landscape, and although the Bosnian kingdom had been otherwise destroyed, the Ottoman's allowed the country to preserve its identity.
Furthermore, as the Ottoman Empire continued to expand through Central Europe, Bosnia enjoyed an extended period of prosperity. The cities of Sarajevo and Mostar were established, and thrived as regional centers for trade and urban culture.
Late into the 17th century, the misfortunes of the Ottoman Empire caught up with Bosnia, and by 1878 the country was incorporated into the Austria-Hungary Empire through the Treaty of Berlin.
Political tensions increased over the next thirty years, as the region of Bosnia and Herzegovina pushed for independence.
Then, on June 28, 1914, tragedy struck as the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, was assassinated in Sarajevo by a Serb nationalist youth; an event that set World War I into motion.
Although it was the epicenter of the assassination, Bosnia and Herzegovina came through World War I, for the most part, unharmed.
After the wars end, Bosnia and Herzegovina, along with the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes formed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
From 1918 through 1941, social and economic unrest prevailed, and on April 6, 1941, amidst World War II, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was invaded by Germany