The Andorra flag was officially adopted in 1866.
The flag features three equal vertical bands of blue, yellow, and red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band. Those colors are said to represent Andorra's independence from both France and Spain, with blue and red from France, and the red and yellow from Spain
Civil Ensign of Andorra
Andorra Coat of Arms:
Andorra's coat of arms was adopted in 1969, and contains a shield divided into four sections with the national motto, Virtus Unita Fortior ("United Virtue is Stronger"), displayed below.
- Anthem Title: El Gran Carlemany (The Great Charlemagne)
- Composer: Enric Marfany Bons
- Lyricist: Juan Benlloch y Vivó
- Year of Completion: Unspecified
- Date of Adoption: September 8, 1921
The national anthem of the Principality of Andorra is El Gran Carlemany ("The Great Charlemagne" in English). Juan Benlloch y Vivó, a former Bishop of Urgell and ex officio of the Co-Prince of Andorra, penned the lyrics (which were written in a first-person point of view), with Enric Marfany Bons, a priest composing the music. The national anthem was officially adopted on September 8th 1921, which also commemorated Andorra's national day. The lyrics to the anthem mention vital events in the culture and history of Andorra, including the Carolingian Empire's heritage.
On the same day that the anthem was officially adopted, it was sung at Andorra's cathedral for the first time during the country's National Day. Incidentally, the feast day of Our Lady of Meritxell falls on September 8th, Andorra's patron saint who was included in the lyrics.
The lyrics of El Gran Carlemany are narrated in a first-person point of view and showcase a brief account of the history of Andorra. It mentions a traditional legend in Andorra about how Charlemagne managed to re-conquer Andorra from Moors during 788 to 790, after Catalan people guided him and his army through the rough valleys. In return, Charlemagne granted independence to Andorra, with the first borders of the country being defined. As a result, a part of Marca Hispanica, a buffer zone created by Charlemagne to protect his estate, the Carolingian Empire, formed.
Legends say, Charlemagne was responsible for rebuilding the country of Andorra and introducing its people to Christianity once more. He also took charge of looking over the construction of numerous monasteries. Due to all of his deeds, he is recognized as the Andorra's founder and had a "mythical aura".
The beginning of the anthem's lyrics, "El gran Carlemany mon pare", which translates to, "Great Charlemagne, my father" immortalizes the people's view of Charlemagne as an important entity in the rebuilding of the country.Lyrics:
El Gran Carlemany (Catalan)
El gran Carlemany, mon pare,
dels alarbs em deslliurà,
I del cel vida em donà,
de Meritxell, la gran Mare.
Princesa nasquí i Pubilla
entre dues nacions, neutral;
sols resto l'única filla,
de l'imperi Carlemany.
Creient i lliure onze segles,
creient i lliure vull ser.
Siguin els furs mos tutors
i mos Prínceps defensors!
I mos Prínceps defensors!
The Great Charlemagne
The great Charlemagne, my Father,
from the Saracens liberated me
And from heaven he gave me life,
of Meritxell, the great Mother.
I was born a Princess, a Maiden
neutral between two nations.
I am the only remaining daughter,
of the Carolingian empire
Believing and free for eleven centuries,
a believer and free I will be.
The laws of the land be my tutors,
and my defender Princes!
And my defender Princes!
Flag of Andorra (1806-1866)