The WorldAtlas List of Geography Facts

THE EARTH

  • Estimated Weight (mass)
    5,940,000,000,000,000,000,000 metric tons
  • Estimated Age 4.6 billion years
  • Current Population 7,000,000,001
  • Surface Area 510,066,000 sq km
  • Land Area 148,647,000 sq km 29.1%
  • Ocean Area 335,258,000 sq km
  • Total Water Area 361,419,000 sq km 70.9%
  • Type of Water 97% salt, 3% fresh
  • Circumference at the equator 40,066 km
  • Circumference at the poles 39, 992 km
  • Diameterat the equator 12,753 km
  • Diameter at the poles 12,710 km
  • Radius at the equator 6,376 km
  • Radius at the poles 6,355 km
  • Orbit Speeds The earth orbits the Sun at 66,700 mph (107,320 km per hour)
  • Sun Orbit The earth orbits the Sun every 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 46 seconds
OCEANS OF THE WORLD Note: The Southern Ocean was approved in 2000 by the International Hydrographic Organization. It is now the fourth largest ocean.

MAJOR BODIES OF WATER OCEAN'S GREATEST DEPTHS
  • Mariana Trench, Pacific Ocean 35,827 ft
  • Puerto Rico Trench, Atlantic Ocean 30,246 ft
  • Java Trench, Indian Ocean 24,460 ft
  • Arctic Basin, Arctic Ocean 18,456 ft
DEEPEST OCEANS AND SEAS
  • Pacific Ocean 35,827 ft (10,924 m)
  • Atlantic Ocean 30,246 ft (9,219 m)
  • Indian Ocean 24,460 ft (7,455 m)
  • Caribbean Sea 22,788 ft (6,946 m)
  • Arctic Ocean 18,456 ft (5,625 m)
  • South China Sea 16,456 ft (5,016 m)
  • Bering Sea 15,659 ft (4,773 m)
  • Mediterranean Sea 15,197 ft (4,632 m)
  • Gulf of Mexico 12,425 ft (3,787 m)
  • Japan Sea 12,276 ft (3,742 m)
Note: Official depths for the Southern Ocean are still not available at this time.

MAJOR SEAS
  • Locator Map
  • South China 2,974,600 sq km
  • Caribbean 2,515,900 sq km
  • Mediterranean 2,510,000 sq km
  • Bering 2,261,100 sq km
  • Gulf of Mexico 1,507,600 sq km
  • Arabian Sea 1,498,320 sq km
  • Sea of Okhotsk 1,392,100 sq km
  • Sea of Japan (East Sea) 1,012,900 sq km
  • Hudson Bay 730,100 sq km
  • East China 664,600 sq km
  • Andaman 564,900 sq km
  • Black 507,900 sq km
  • Red 453,000 sq km
MAJOR ISLANDS (by size)
  • Locator Map
  • Australia 7,617.930 sq km; widely considered part of a continental landmass, not officially an island. But without doubt it is the largest island on the planet, and when combined with Oceania, the smallest continent on Earth.
  • Greenland 2,175,600 sq km
  • New Guinea 792,500 sq km
  • Borneo 725,500 sq km
  • Madagascar 587,000 sq km
  • Baffin 507,500 sq km
  • Sumatra 427,300 sq km
  • Honshu 227,400 sq km
  • Great Britain 218,100 sq km
  • Victoria 217,300 sq km
  • Ellesmere 196,200 sq km
  • Celebes 178,650 sq km
  • New Zealand (south) 151,000 sq km
  • Java 126,700 sq km
  • New Zealand (north) 114,000 sq km
  • Newfoundland 108,900 sq km
ISLANDS
  • Additional details and facts here.
MAJOR RIVERS (by length)
  • Nile, Africa 6,825 km
  • Amazon, South America 6,437 km
  • Chang Jiang (Yangtze), Asia 6,380 km
  • Mississippi/Missouri, North America 5,971 km
  • Yenisey-Angara, Asia 5,536 km
  • Huang (Yellow), Asia 5,464 km
  • Ob-Irtysh, Asia 5,410 km
  • Amur, Asia 4,416 km
  • Lena, Asia 4,400 km
  • Congo, Africa 4,370 km
  • Mackenzie-Peace, North America 4,241 km
  • Mekong, Asia 4,184 km
  • Niger, Africa 4,171 km
MAJOR LAKES (by size)
  • Caspian Sea, Asia-Europe 371,000 sq km
  • Superior, North America 82,100 sq km
  • Victoria, Africa 69,500 sq km
  • Huron, North America 59,600 sq km
  • Michigan, North America 57,800 sq km
  • Tanganyika, Africa 32,900 sq km
  • Baikal, Asia 31,500 sq km
  • Great Bear, North America 31,300 sq km
  • Aral Sea, Asia 30,700 sq km
  • Malawi, Africa 28,900 sq km
  • Great Slave, Canada 28,568 sq km
  • Erie, North America 25,667 sq km
  • Winnipeg, Canada 24,387 sq km
  • Ontario, North America 19,529 sq km
  • Balkhash, Kazakhstan 18,300 sq km
DEEPEST LAKES (by greatest depth)
  • Baikal, Russian Fed. 5,315 ft
  • Tanganyika, Africa 4,800 ft
  • Caspian Sea, Asia-Europe 3,363 ft
  • Malawi or Nyasa, Africa 2,317 ft
  • Issyk-Kul, Kyrgyzstan 2,303 ft
WATER TERMINOLOGY LARGEST DESERTS ON THE PLANET (Subtropical)
  • Sahara, North Africa 3,320,000 sq. miles
  • Arabian, Middle East 900,000 sq. miles
  • Kalahari, Southern Africa 360,000 sq. miles
  • Great Victoria, Australia 250,000 sq. miles
  • Syrian, Syria, Jordan, Iraq 200,000 sq. miles
  • Chihuahuan, Mexico, U.S. 175,000 sq. miles
  • Great Sandy, Australia 150,000 sq. miles
  • Sonoran, Mexico, U,S, 120,000 sq. miles
  • Thar, India, Pakistan 77,000 sq. miles
  • Gibson, Australia 60,000 sq. miles
  • Simpson, Australia 56,000 sq. miles
  • Mohave, S,W, USA 25,000 sq. miles
(Cool Coastal)
  • Atacama, Chile SA 54,000 sq. miles
  • Namib, S.W. Africa 31,000 sq. miles
(Cold Winter)
  • Gobi, China, Mongolia 500,000 sq. miles
  • Patagonian, Argentina 260,000 sq. miles
  • Great Basin, S.W. USA 190,000 sq. miles
  • Karakum, Turkmenistan 135,000 sq. miles
  • Colorado Plateau, Western USA 130,000 sq. miles
  • Kyzyl Kum, West Asia 115,000 sq. miles
  • Taklamakan, China 105,000 sq. miles
  • Dasht-e Kavir, Iran 30,000 sq. miles
(Polar)
  • Antarctic 5,339,000 sq. miles
  • Arctic 5,300,000 sq. miles
DRIEST INHABITED PLACES (Rain fall in inches per year)
  • Aswan, Egypt 0.02"
  • Luxor, Egypt 0.03"
  • Arica Desert, Chile 0.04"
  • Ica, Peru 0.1"
  • Antofagasta, Chile 0.2"
  • El Minya, Egypt 0.2"
  • Asyut, Egypt 0.2"
CONTINENTS (By Size) CONTINENTS (by the number of countries)
  • #1 Africa 54
  • #2 Europe 46
  • #3 Asia 44
  • #4 North America 23
  • #5 Oceania 14
  • #6 South America 12
LARGEST COUNTRIES (by land mass)
  • Locator Map
  • Russia 6,592,846 sq miles (17,075,400 sq km)
  • Canada 3,602,707 sq miles (9,330,970 sq km)
  • China 3,600,947 sq miles (9,326,410 sq km)
  • USA 3,539,242 sq miles (9.166,600 sq km)
  • Brazil 3,265,075 sq miles (8,456,510 sq km)
  • Australia 2,941,283 sq miles (7,617,930 sq km)
  • India 1,147,949 sq miles (2,973,190 sq km)
  • Argentina 1,056,636 sq miles (2,736,690 sq km)
  • Kazakhstan 1,049,150 sq miles (2,717,300 sq km)
  • Sudan 917,374 sq miles (2,376,000 sq km)
SMALLEST COUNTRIES (by land mass)
  • Vatican City 0.17 sq miles (0.44 sq km)
  • Monaco 0.75 sq miles (1.95 sq km)
  • Nauru 8.2 sq miles (21.2 sq km)
  • Tuvalu 10 sq miles (26 sq km)
  • San Marino 24 sq miles (61 sq km)
  • Liechtenstein 62 sq miles (160 sq km)
  • Marshall Islands 70 sq miles (181 sq km)
  • Seychelles 104 sq miles (270 sq km)
  • Maldives 116 sq miles (300 sq km)
  • St. Kitts and Nevis 139 sq miles (360 sq km)
OLDEST COUNTRIES
  • San Marino 301 AD
  • France 486 AD
  • Bulgaria 632 AD
  • Denmark 950 AD
  • Portugal 1143 AD
  • Andorra 1278 AD
  • Switzerland 1291 AD
YOUNGEST COUNTRIES
  • South Sudan July, 2011
  • Montenegro July, 2006
  • Serbia July, 2006
  • East Timor 2002
  • Palau 1994
  • Czech Republic 1993
  • Eritrea 1993
  • Slovakia 1993
  • Bosnia/Hertzegovina 1992
RICHEST COUNTRIES (GNP in USA Dollars)
  • United States $49,800
  • Luxembourg $45,360
  • Switzerland $44,355
  • Japan $41,010
  • Liechtenstein $40,000
  • Norway $34,515
POOREST COUNTRIES (GNP in USA Dollars)
  • Mozambique $80
  • Somalia $100
  • Eritrea $100
  • Ethiopia $100
  • Congo, DNC $100
COUNTRIES WITH MOST LAND BORDERS (The Most Neighboring Countries)
  • China 14
  • Russian Federation 14
  • Brazil 10
  • Congo, Germany and Sudan 9
  • Austria, France, Tanzania, Turkey and Zambia 8
DEPENDENCIES AND TERRITORIES
Numerous areas of the world (most often islands) are under the economic and military protection of another country. These dependencies and territories are usually small and remote. Some still aspire to gain independence, while others would be unable to survive as an independent country based on global positioning and economic conditions.

Map of Puerto Rico, Puerto Rican Cities, Puerto Rico Map
Dependencies and Territories of the World

TOP 10 TALLEST MOUNTAINS
  • Mount Everest 29,035 ft (8,850 m) Nepal/China
  • Qogir (K2) 28,250 ft (8,611 m) Pakistan
  • Kangchenjunga 28,169 ft (8,586 m) Nepal
  • Lhotse 27,920 ft (8,501 m) Nepal
  • Makalu I 27,765 ft (8,462 m) Nepal
  • Cho Oyu 26,906 ft (8,201 m) Nepal
  • Dhaulagiri 26,794 ft (8,167 m) Nepal
  • Manaslu I 26,758 ft (8,156 m) Nepal
  • Nanga Parbat 26,658 ft (8,125 m) Pakistan
  • Annapurna I 26,545 ft (8,091 m) Nepal
Note: The dormant volcano Mauna Kea (on the Big Island of Hawaii) could be considered the tallest mountain in the world. If you measure it from its base in the Hawaiian Trough (3,300 fathoms deep) to its summit of 13,796 feet, it reaches a height of 33,476 feet.

TALLEST MOUNTAINS (by continent)
  • Mount Everest 29,035 ft (8,850 m) Asia
  • Aconcagua 22,831 ft (6,959 m) S. America
  • Mount McKinley 20,320 ft (6,194 m) N. America
  • Mount Kilimanjaro 19,563 ft (5,963 m) Africa
  • Mount Elbrus 18,481 ft (5,633 m) Europe
  • Puncak Jaya 16,023 ft (4,884 m) Oceania
  • Vinson Massif 16,066 ft (4,897 m) Antarctica
HIGHEST/LOWEST SURFACE POINTS (Below Sea Level, On Each Continent)
  • Dead Sea, Asia -409 meters
  • Lake Assal, Africa -156 meters
  • Death Valley, North America -86 meters
  • Valdés Peninsula, South America -40 meters
  • Caspian Sea, Europe -28 meters
  • Lake Eyre, Australia -16 meters
  • Antarctica (ice covered) -2,538 meters
Highest/Lowest Points
  • Countries, Islands, Oceans here.
For the highest points on each continent see Tallest Mountains (above)

Hottest, Coldest, Driest, Wettest
  • Hottest Place Dalol, Denakil Depression, Ethiopia, avg annual temp (93.2°F, 34°C)
  • Coldest Place Plateau Station, Antarctica, avg annual temp (-56.7°C)
  • Wettest Place Mawsynram, Assam, India, avg annual rain (11,873 mm, 467.4")
  • Driest Place Atacama Desert, Chile, imperceptible rainfall on a yearly basis
WETTEST INHABITED PLACES
(Rain fall in inches per year)
  • Buenaventira, Colombia 267"
  • Monrovia, Liberia 202"
  • Pagp Pago, American Samoa 198"
  • Moulein, Burma (Myanmar 192"
  • Lae, Papua New Guinea 183"
  • Baguio, Philippines180"
  • Sylhet, Bangladesh 178"

COUNTRY POPULATION FIGURES

COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD CURRENCY CONTINENTS (by population) 2014 est.
  • #1 Asia 4,298,723,000
  • #2 Africa 1,110,635,000
  • #3 Europe 742,452,000
  • #4 North America 565,265,000
  • #5 South America 406,740,000
  • #6 Australia/Oceania 38,304,000
  • #7 Antarctica 0
COUNTRIES (by highest density)
(people per square km)
  • Monaco 16,205
  • Singapore 6,386
  • Malta 1,261
  • Maldives 1,164
  • Bahrain 1,035
  • Bangladesh 1,002
  • Vatican City 920
  • Barbados 648
  • Nauru 621
  • Mauritius 603
COUNTRIES (by lowest density)
(people per square km)
  • Mongolia 2
  • Namibia 2
  • Australia 3
  • Botswana 3
  • Iceland 3
  • Suriname 3
  • Libya 3
  • Mauritania 3
  • Canada 3
  • Guyana 4
COUNTRY POPULATIONS (smallest)
(February, 2012 UN numbers)
  • Vatican City 800
  • Tuvalu 10,000
  • Nauru 10,000
  • Palau 21,000
  • San Marino 32,312
  • Monaco 35,881
  • Liechtenstein 36,476
  • St. Kitts 54,000
  • Marshall Islands 54,305
  • Dominica 71,293
COUNTRY POPULATIONS (largest)
(January, 2014 UN numbers)
  • China 1,339,190,000
  • India 1,210,193,000
  • USA 313,686,000
  • Indonesia 237,641,000
  • Brazil 192,376,000
  • Pakistan 179,764,000
  • Nigeria 170,471,000
  • Bangladesh 164,425,000
  • Russia 143,100,000
  • Japan 127,610,200
(10) LARGEST USA CITIES
(By Population) Numbers shown are the population within the recognized city limits, and do not include people living in the immediate surrounding area outside of the established border of the city (often called the metro). For those numbers, visit this page.
  • New York City, NY 8.09 million
  • Los Angeles, CA 3.8 million
  • Chicago, IL 3.1 million
  • Houston, TX 2.78 million
  • Philadelphia, PA 1.62 million
  • Phoenix, AZ 1.54 million
  • San Antonio, TX 1.5 million
  • San Diego, CA 1.4 million
  • Dallas, TX 1.32 million
  • Detroit, MI 1 million
LARGEST CITIES ON THE PLANET
Numbers shown are the population within the recognized city limits, and do not include people living in the immediate surrounding area outside of the established border of the city. For the largest metropolitan areas refer to the list below this one. Revised (10/01/11)
  • Shanghai, China 13.3 million
  • Mumbai (Bombay), India 12.6 million
  • Buenos Aires, Argentina 11.92 million
  • Moscow, Russia 11.3 million
  • Karachi, Pakistan 10.9 million
  • Delhi, India 10.4 million
  • Manila, Philippines 10.3 million
  • Sao Paulo, Brazil 10.26 million
  • Seoul, South Korea 10.2 million
  • Istanbul, Turkey 9.6 million
  • Jakarta, Indonesia 9.0 million
  • Mexico City, Mexico 8.7 million
  • Lagos, Nigeria 8.68 million
  • Lima, Peru 8.38 million
  • Tokyo, Japan 8.3 million
  • New York City, USA 8.09 million
  • Cairo, Egypt 7.6 million
  • London, UK 7.59 million
  • Teheran, Iran 7.3 million
  • Beijing, China 7.2 million
LARGEST METRO AREAS ON THE PLANET
Numbers shown are the population within the immediate surrounding area of the established border of the city, and also include the city limit population figures. Revised (05/11)
  • Tokyo, Japan 35.6 million
  • Chongqing (Chungking), China 31.4 million
  • New York City, Philadelphia area, USA 30.1 million
  • Mexico City, Mexico 21.5 million
  • Seoul, South Korea 20.15 million
  • Sao Paulo, Brazil 19.9 million
  • Jakarta, Indonesia 18.2 million
  • Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto, Japan 17.6 million
  • New Delhi, India 17.36 million
  • Mumbai, India (Bombay) 17.34 million
  • Los Angeles, USA 16.7 million
  • Cairo, Egypt 15.86 million
  • Calcutta, India 14.3 million
  • Manila, Philippines 14.1 million
  • Shanghai, China 13.9 million
  • Buenos Aires, Argentina 13.2 million
  • Moscow, Russian Fed. 12.2 million
CITIES OF THE WORLD - POPULATION ASSORTED FACTS
  • Olympic Games Summer & Winter sites here.
LANGUAGES OF THE WORLD
  • Chinese Mandarin 1 billion +
  • English 512 million
  • Hindi 501 million
  • Spanish 399 million
  • Russian 285 million
  • Arabic 265 million
  • Bengali 245 million
  • Portuguese 196 million
  • Malay-Indonesian 140 million
  • Japanese 125 million
  • German 100 million
  • Korean 78 million
  • French 77 million
  • Chinese, Wu 77 million
  • Javanese 75 million
  • Chinese, Yue 71 million
  • Urdu 60 million
OFFICIAL LANGUAGES
  • French is an official language here.
  • Spanish is an official language here.

TWO & THREE LETTER ABBREVIATIONS

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