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Georgia History Timeline

BC
  • (8000BC) Wine produced in the region of Colchis (later Georgia)
500s – 1800s
  • (500-600) Monastic complex of David Gareja (St. David Garejeli) founded
  • (1178) King Giorgi III crowned his daughter, Tamara, as co-ruler
  • (1204-1205) Georgia's Queen Tamara marched with her men in the battle of Basiani; won victory over Turks, hailed as "Our King Tamara"
  • (1265) Mongols sacked the monastic complex of David Gareja
  • (1395) Tamerlane, Turkic conqueror, swept into southern Russia and Georgia; drove locals into the hills
  • (1615) Persians sacked monastic complex of David Gareja in Georgia
  • (1801-04) Most of present-day Georgia became part of the Russian Empire
1900s
  • (1918) Independent Georgian state declared
  • (1921) Red army invaded; Georgia declared a Soviet Socialist Republic
  • (1922) Georgia became a founding member of the Soviet Union
  • (1936) Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Republic dissolved; Georgia became a full republic of the Soviet Union
  • (1972) Eduard Shevardnadze appointed head of the Georgian Communist Party
  • (1989) Soviet troops killed about 20 pro-independence demonstrators in Tbilisi; Georgians and Ossetians clashed over demands for greater autonomy for South Ossetia; Russian peacekeepers deployed
  • (1990)
  • (1991) Georgian people voted overwhelmingly for independence in a referendum; Georgia left Soviet Union; Gamsakhurdia elected president of Georgia by more than 85% of the votes
  • (1992) Gamsakhurdia was deposed after fighting in central Tbilisi between government troops and opposition militias; Eduard Shevardnadze took power; separatist troops in Abkhazia engaged Georgian forces; Shevardnadze appointed head of newly-formed state council
  • (1993) Georgian troops driven out of Abkhazia after fierce fighting; Georgia agreed to join the CIS, received help from Russian troops
  • (1994) Ceasefire signed between Tbilisi and Abkhaz separatists; Russian peacekeepers began to patrol the disputed region; new constitution adopted; new currency, lari, introduced
  • (1995) Shevardnadze won election for president
  • (1997) Death penalty abolished

2000s

  • (2000)Shevardnadze re-elected president
  • (2001) Georgia and separatist region of Abkhazia signed accordance, pledged not to use force against each other; Russia gave Vaziani military base to Georgia; conflict in Abkhazia between Abkhaz troops and Georgian paramilitaries supported by fighters from north Caucasus; demonstrations followed a raid by security forces on privately-owned Rustavi-2 TV station
  • (2002) US special forces trained Georgian forces for counter-terrorist operations; Russia accused Georgia of sheltering Chechen militants in Pankisi Gorge; Russian President Putin warned of military action if Georgia failed to deal with the Chechen militants; antiterrorist operations ended with several guerrillas killed, many Chechens detained and several extradited to Russia
  • (2003) Oil pipeline work began from Baku, Azerbaijan through Georgia to Ceyhan, Turkey; peaceful "Rose Revolution" led to Shevardnadze's removal
  • (2004) Mikheil Saakashvili won presidential elections; tensions formed with leadership of the autonomous region of Ajaria, Tbilisi briefly imposed sanctions, closed the border; Saakashvili's national movement democratic front won overwhelming majority in parliament; Ajarian leader Asian Abashidze claimed Georgian forces about to invade, blew up bridges that connected the region with the rest of Georgia; President Saakashvili ordered Abashidze to comply with Georgian constitution; Abashidze resigned, left Georgia; South Ossetia held parliamentary elections, unrecognized by Tbilisi; Georgia decided to modify its anti-smuggling operations in South Ossetia, criticized by Russia; Georgian and South Ossetian forces clashed, key positions captured; Georgia pulled back its forces; Abkhaz presidential elections ended in chaos

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This page was last modified on April 7, 2017.