Bulgaria

Bulgaria Timeline

1500's BC

  • (4,000 BC) Thracians first known inhabitants, lived in the area of Varna on the Black Sea
  • (359-336BC) Philip II ruled kingdom of Macedonia
  • (585BC) Greeks, Byzantines, and Turks settled
  • (15BC) Romans began to extend their empire, included Bulgaria
400's – 1800's
  • (476) Roman Empire collapsed
  • (650) Bulgars founded a kingdom in the south-eastern Balkans that became know as Bulgaria
  • (681) Bulgarian state established
  • (864) Khan Boris, of the Bulgarians, baptized as an Orthodox Christian; Bulgarians adopted Christianity for Constantinople
  • (867) Basil I became the Byzantine emperor, established the Macedonian dynasty
  • (1014) Byzantine Emperor Basil earned the title "Slayer of Bulgers" after he ordered the blinding of 15,000 Bulgarian troops
  • (1878) Russia and Ottomans signed treaty of San Stefano, lost possession of Bulgaria and Romania
  • (1885) Serbian Army, with Russian support, invaded Bulgaria; Bulgarians, led by Stefan Stambolov, repulsed a larger Serbian invasion force at Slivinitza; Bulgaria moved into Serbia
  • (1886) Treaty of Bucharest concluded the Serb-Bulgarian war; Cathedral of the Assumption built in Varna; eastern Rumelia merged with Bulgaria
1900's
  • (1903) Bulgarian government renounced the treaty of commerce; 30,000-50,000 Bulgarian men, women, and children massacred in Monastir by Turkish troops; Turks destroyed the town of Kastoria in Bulgaria, killed 10,000 civilians
  • (1908) Bulgaria declared independence from Ottoman Empire (Turkey); Ferdinand assumed title of tsar
  • (1912) Bulgaria, Greece, and Serbia declared war on Turkey, started the first Balkan War
  • (1913) Bulgarians captured Adrianople, ended the first Balkan war; fighting broke out between Bulgaria and ex-allies Greece and Spain which started the second Balkan war; the treaty of Bucharest ended the second Balkan war
  • (1914-1918) World War I, Bulgaria fought on the losing side
  • (1915) Bulgaria mobilized troops on the Serbian border; Great Britain declared war on Bulgaria; Russia and Italy declared war on Bulgaria
  • (1916) Constance of Greece declared war on Bulgaria
  • (1918) Bulgaria pulled out of World War I
  • (1919) Bulgaria signed peace treaty with allies, recognized Yugoslavian independence
  • (1939-1945) World War II
  • (1943) Allied forces bombed Sofia, capital of Bulgaria
  • (1946) Bulgaria abolished the Bulgarian monarchy; Communist party won election; Georgi Dimitrov elected prime minister
  • (1950) United States formally broke relations with Bulgaria
  • (1955) Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania signed Warsaw Pact in Poland
  • (1971) Bulgarian constitution created based on Communism; Zhivkov became president
  • (1988) Bulgaria stopped jamming Radio Free Europe after more than 3 decades
  • (1989) Todor Zhivkov, Communist ruler, thrown out of office after a 35-year Bulgarian dictatorship; multiparty system introduced; opposition union of democratic forces formed
  • (1990) Bulgarian parliament elected Andrei Lukanov, economist, to replace a hard-line Communist as premier; President Petar Mladenov resigned, parliament appointed UDF's Zhelyu Zhelev
  • (1991) New constitution proclaimed Bulgaria a parliamentary republic, provided broad range of freedoms; UDF won election
  • (1992) Zhelev became Bulgaria's first directly-elected president; UDF government resigned; Lyuben Berov headed non-party government; Todor Zhivkov sentenced to seven years in prison for corruption in office
  • (1993) Mass privatization program began
  • (1994) BSP returned to power in general election
  • (1995) BSP's Zhan Videnov elected prime minister
  • (1996) Petur Stoyanov replaced Zhelev as president; Videnov resigned as prime minister and chairman of the BSP; Bulgarian Supreme Court overturned Zhivkov's conviction
  • (1997) Mass protests over economic crisis; opposition boycotted parliament, called for elections; interim government installed until elections, UDF leader Ivan Kostov became prime minister; Bulgarian currency pegged to German mark
2000's
  • (2000) Post-Communist prosecutors closed file on Georgi Markov case; Markov awarded Bulgaria's highest honor, The Order of Stara Planina, for his contribution to Bulgarian literature and opposition to the Communist authorities
  • (2001) Former King Simeon II's party, National Movement, won parliamentary elections; Simeon became premier; thousands marched through Sofia on 100th day of Simeon's premiership, due to failure to improve living standards; Socialist Party leader Georgi Parvanov won presidency in an election with the lowest turnout; parliament agreed to destroy Soviet-made missiles by late 2002
  • (2004) Bulgaria admitted to NATO
  • (2005) Sergi Stanishev became prime minister; Bulgaria's contingent of 400 light infantry troops left Iraq
  • (2006) Parliament agreed to dispatch a non-combat guard unit to Iraq; Bulgarian officials condemned death sentences handed to five Bulgarian nurses and a Palestinian doctor by a Libyan court, found guilty of deliberately infecting Libyan children with the HIV virus
  • (2007) Bulgaria and Romania joined the European Union, raising the EU membership to 27; the European Commission called on Bulgaria to do more to combat corruption; the death sentences against six foreign medical workers in the HIV case in Libya were commuted to life in prison, they were repatriated to Bulgaria under a deal with the European Union
  • (2008) European Commission interim report stated that Bulgaria and Romania failed to show convincing results in their anti-graft drives; European Union called on Bulgaria to take urgent action after two prominent gangland killings; Interior Minister Rumen Petkov resigned over police officers accused of passing state secrets to alleged crime bosses; European Commission suspended EU aid after Bulgarian government failed to take effective action against corruption and organized crime
  • (2009) Russia's gas dispute with Ukraine cut supplies to Bulgaria, resulted in severe energy shortage; workers rallied to protest government's handling of economic crisis; general election won by center-right GERB party led by Sofia Mayor, Boiko Borisov
  • (2010) Bulgaria exports to non-EU countries grew
  • (2011) Foot-and-mouth disease outbreak occurred in southeastern Bulgaria, 149 animals killed, second outbreak resulted in 173 animals being killed
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Bulgaria Photographs

Photos used are from public domain sources and from en.wikipedia.org