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Syria timeline

1 | 2 | 3 Timeline (Page 1)

  • (3000 BC) Semites settled in Syria
  • (2400 BC) Mesopotamian city of Nagar became powerful state
  • (2100 BC) Amorites came from Arabian Peninsula, established many small states
  • (1500 BC) Arameans developed language that dominated Syria
  • (1200 BC) Hebrews/Israelites moved to southern Syria
  • (538 BC) Syria became part of the Persian Empire.
  • (332 BC) Alexander the Great conquered Syria
  • (300 BC) Greek colony, Dura-Europos, built on the Euphrates in eastern Syria
  • (300 BC – 64 BC) Antioch was the capital of the Kingdom of Syria
  • (274 BC – 271 BC) Ptolemies defeated Antiochus I, Seleucid king who was trying to expand empire's holdings in Syria and Anatolia
  • (64 BC) Roman general, Pompey, defeated Seleucid Antiochus XIII, Syria became a Roman province
100s - 1800s
  • (117) Hadrian became emperor
  • (262 - 266) Syria was restored to the Roman Empire after defeat of Valerian
  • (266) King Odenathus, ruler of Roman province of Syria, was murdered; his wife, Zenobia Septimia, took control
  • (270) Zenobia of Syria proclaimed herself to be Queen of the East, attacked adjoining Roman colonies, conquered Egypt
  • (636) At Battle at Yarmuk, Islamic forces defeated Byzantine army, gained control of Syria
  • (661) Umayyad Caliphate rule began founded by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan
  • (661) Muawija became caliph, moved capital to Damascus
  • (1098) First Crusaders captured, plundered Mara in Syria
  • (1110) Crusaders captured Syrian city of Saida
  • (1174 - 1183) Nureddin, ruler of Syria died; led by Saladin, the Ayyubids took control, brought stability and positive economic growth
  • (1202) Major earthquake killed over 30,000
  • (1250) Egyptian Mamlukes controlled most of Syria
  • (1300) Last of the Crusaders were driven out of Syria
  • (1492) After expulsion from Spain, Jews began arriving in Syria
  • (1496) Jews were expelled from Syria
  • (1516) At battle of Marj Dabik, Turks beat Syria, Ottoman Empire began
  • (1831) Syria and Jordan were conquered by Egypt
  • (1840) Egypt withdrew from Syria and Jordan following pressure from Britain and Austria
  • (1860) Over 25,000 Christians in Damascus were massacred
  • (1860) France sent 5,000 troops to Syria to stop massacres
  • (1869) Syria's economic importance diminished with opening of the Suez Canal
  • (1916) Great Britain and France signed Sykes-Picot Agreement, divided Middle East, Syria and Lebanon given to France
  • (1918) Ottoman rule over Syria ended when Arab troops, led by Emir Feisal, captured Damascus
  • (1919) First parliamentary elections took place

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Timeline continued...
Photos used are from public domain sources and from en.wikipedia.org

1900s continued
  • (1920) Faysal I crowned King of Syria
  • (1920) France delivered ultimatum to King Faysal asking him to dissolve the Arab Kingdom, Syrian Army and accept French Mandate or face war
  • (1920) Syrian Army lost against French Army at Battle of Maysaloun
  • (1920) Ibrahim Hananu launched revolt in northern Syria against French (Aleppo Revolt)
  • (1920) King Faysal I was forced to leave Syria, Syrian Army dissolved, Syrian throne abolished
  • (1920) Syrian Prime Minister and the Head of the Shura Council were murdered by Faysal loyalists
  • (1920) France separated Syria from Lebanon
  • (1922) France created Syrian Federal Council to unite states of Damascus, Aleppo, Alawite Mountain
  • (1922) League of Nations recognized French Mandate
  • (1924) Communist Party founded
  • (1925) People's Party founded
  • (1925) French Army conducted air raids on Damascus for 48 hours
  • (1926) French Army raided neighborhood of Damascus, killed 200 civilians
  • (1928) Taj al-Din al-Hasani named Prime Minister
  • (1932) Syrian Republic was created with Mohammad Ali al-Abid as first president
  • (1936) National Bloc led 60-day strike in Syria protesting France's abolishing constitution
  • (1936) Strike destroyed Syrian economy, killed hundreds; caused France embarrassment in the international community
  • (1936) France and Syria signed Franco-Syrian Treaty of Independence to provide for Syrian independence
  • (1936) President Mohammad Ali-Abid resigned, Hashim al-Atassi elected president
  • (1939) Area of Alexandretta, with ancient capital of Antioch, ceded to Turkey
  • (1939) In protest of loss of Alexandretta, President Hashim al-Atasi resigned
  • (1940) During World War II, France fell to German forces, Syria was controlled by the Axis powers
  • (1941) Syria was occupied by British and Free French forces
  • (1941) British, Free French forces recognized Syrian independence


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