Syrian Arab Republic

Syrian Arab Republic Timeline

BC
  • (3000 BC) Semites settled in Syria
  • (2400 BC) Mesopotamian city of Nagar became powerful state
  • (2100 BC) Amorites came from Arabian Peninsula, established many small states
  • (1500 BC) Arameans developed language that dominated Syria
  • (1200 BC) Hebrews/Israelites moved to southern Syria
  • (538 BC) Syria became part of the Persian Empire.
  • (332 BC) Alexander the Great conquered Syria
  • (300 BC) Greek colony, Dura-Europos, built on the Euphrates in eastern Syria
  • (300 BC – 64 BC) Antioch was the capital of the Kingdom of Syria
  • (274 BC – 271 BC) Ptolemies defeated Antiochus I, Seleucid king who was trying to expand empire's holdings in Syria and Anatolia
  • (64 BC) Roman general, Pompey, defeated Seleucid Antiochus XIII, Syria became a Roman province
100s - 1800s
  • (117) Hadrian became emperor
  • (262 - 266) Syria was restored to the Roman Empire after defeat of Valerian
  • (266) King Odenathus, ruler of Roman province of Syria, was murdered; his wife, Zenobia Septimia, took control
  • (270) Zenobia of Syria proclaimed herself to be Queen of the East, attacked adjoining Roman colonies, conquered Egypt
  • (636) At Battle at Yarmuk, Islamic forces defeated Byzantine army, gained control of Syria
  • (661) Umayyad Caliphate rule began founded by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan
  • (661) Muawija became caliph, moved capital to Damascus
  • (1098) First Crusaders captured, plundered Mara in Syria
  • (1110) Crusaders captured Syrian city of Saida
  • (1174 - 1183) Nureddin, ruler of Syria died; led by Saladin, the Ayyubids took control, brought stability and positive economic growth
  • (1202) Major earthquake killed over 30,000
  • (1250) Egyptian Mamlukes controlled most of Syria
  • (1300) Last of the Crusaders were driven out of Syria
  • (1492) After expulsion from Spain, Jews began arriving in Syria
  • (1496) Jews were expelled from Syria
  • (1516) At battle of Marj Dabik, Turks beat Syria, Ottoman Empire began
  • (1831) Syria and Jordan were conquered by Egypt
  • (1840) Egypt withdrew from Syria and Jordan following pressure from Britain and Austria
  • (1860) Over 25,000 Christians in Damascus were massacred
  • (1860) France sent 5,000 troops to Syria to stop massacres
  • (1869) Syria's economic importance diminished with opening of the Suez Canal
1900s
  • (1916) Great Britain and France signed Sykes-Picot Agreement, divided Middle East, Syria and Lebanon given to France
  • (1918) Ottoman rule over Syria ended when Arab troops, led by Emir Feisal, captured Damascus
  • (1919) First parliamentary elections took place
  • (1920) Faysal I crowned King of Syria
  • (1920) France delivered ultimatum to King Faysal asking him to dissolve the Arab Kingdom, Syrian Army and accept French Mandate or face war
  • (1920) Syrian Army lost against French Army at Battle of Maysaloun
  • (1920) Ibrahim Hananu launched revolt in northern Syria against French (Aleppo Revolt)
  • (1920) King Faysal I was forced to leave Syria, Syrian Army dissolved, Syrian throne abolished
  • (1920) Syrian Prime Minister and the Head of the Shura Council were murdered by Faysal loyalists
  • (1920) France separated Syria from Lebanon
  • (1922) France created Syrian Federal Council to unite states of Damascus, Aleppo, Alawite Mountain
  • (1922) League of Nations recognized French Mandate
  • (1924) Communist Party founded
  • (1925) People's Party founded
  • (1925) French Army conducted air raids on Damascus for 48 hours
  • (1926) French Army raided neighborhood of Damascus, killed 200 civilians
  • (1928) Taj al-Din al-Hasani named Prime Minister
  • (1932) Syrian Republic was created with Mohammad Ali al-Abid as first president
  • (1936) National Bloc led 60-day strike in Syria protesting France's abolishing constitution
  • (1936) Strike destroyed Syrian economy, killed hundreds; caused France embarrassment in the international community
  • (1936) France and Syria signed Franco-Syrian Treaty of Independence to provide for Syrian independence
  • (1936) President Mohammad Ali-Abid resigned, Hashim al-Atassi elected president
  • (1939) Area of Alexandretta, with ancient capital of Antioch, ceded to Turkey
  • (1939) In protest of loss of Alexandretta, President Hashim al-Atasi resigned
  • (1940) During World War II, France fell to German forces, Syria was controlled by the Axis powers
  • (1941) Syria was occupied by British and Free French forces
  • (1941) British, Free French forces recognized Syrian independence
  • (1941) Taj al-Din al-Hasani appointed president
  • (1943) President Taj al-Din al-Hasani died, Shukri al-Quwatli elected president
  • (1943) Government organized under President Shukri al-Quwatli
  • (1944) French language dropped from Syrian schools' curriculum
  • (1945) Syria entered WWII when President Shukri al-Quwatli declared war on Nazi Germany
  • (1945) After end of WWII, French tried to uphold influence over Syria, raided Damascus, destroyed the Citadel of Damascus and the Parliament, around 660 civilians were killed
  • (1945) Syria became founding member of Arab League
  • (1945) Syria became charter member of United Nations
  • (1946) Last French troops left Syria
  • (1948) Syria participated in joint Arab warfare against establishment of State of Israel
  • (1948) Shukri al-Quwatli reelected president
  • (1949) General Husni al-Za'im seized power in Syria, arrested President Shukri al-Quwatli and Prime Minister Khalid al-Azm
  • (1949) Husni al-Za-im dissolved Parliament
  • (1949) Husni al-Za-im held referendum, elected president
  • (1949) Husni al-Za-im killed by military coup
  • (1950) Hashim al-Atasi elected president
  • (1950) New constitution created
  • (1951) Military coup forced resignation of President Atasi, General Adib al- Shishakli took control; dissolved Parliament, outlawed all political parties, newspapers
  • (1953) Adib al-Shishakli became president
  • (1953) New constitution created strict limitations on civil liberties
  • (1954) Military coup forced Shishakli to resign, reinstated Attasi, restored 1950 constitution
  • (1955) Shukri al-Quwatli reelected president for the third time
  • (1955) Israel attacked Syrian posts on Lake Tiberais
  • (1958) Syria jointed new United Arab Republic (UAR); Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser was head
  • (1958) UAR President Nasser ordered dissolution of Syrian political parties
  • (1961) Due to discontent with Egyptian domination of UAR, Syrian Army took control of Damascus, declared Syrian independence
  • (1961) Referendum established a provisional constitution and new government
  • (1963) Central Ba'th leaders gained power in military coup
  • (1963) National Council established, headed by Major General Amin el-Hafez
  • (1963) Attempts made to unite Iraq with Syria ended with overthrow of Iraqi branch of Ba'th party
  • (1966) Coup ended Ba'th's influence over Syria politics, Syria became governed through Syrian Ba'th, Nuur ad-Din al-Attasi became deputy prime minister
  • (1967) Syria participated in Six-Day War against Israel; Syria was defeated and lost territory of Golan Heights to Israel
  • (1970) Hafez a-Assad overthrew President Nur al-Din al-Atasi
  • (1971) Hafez al-Assad elected president for seven-year term in referendum
  • (1980) Muslim Brotherhood staged rebellions in Hama and Aleppo
  • (1980) Attempt was made on Assad's life by Muslim Brotherhood member
  • (1980) Syria backed Iran in war with Iraq
  • (1982) Attacks by government on members of Muslim Brotherhood in Hama left thousands dead
  • (1982) Israel invaded Lebanon, attacked Syrian army, forcing it to withdraw from several areas
  • (1985) Assad elected president
  • (1986) Britain and U.S. accused Syria of supporting international terrorism, ambassadors from both countries were recalled
  • (1990) Syria gained control over Lebanon
  • (1991) Syria participated in Gulf War against Iraq
2000s
  • (2000) President Assad died, son Bashar al-Assad named president
  • (2000) President Assad released 600 political prisoners
  • (2003) Syria denied allegations from U.S. that it was developing chemical weapons, U.S. threatened sanctions
  • (2003) Israel bombed site near Damascus, claimed it was training grounds for Islamic Jihad
  • (2004) Economics sanctions imposed by U.S. for Syria's support of terrorism and failure to stop militants from entering Iraq
  • (2005) Syria withdrew from Lebanon
  • (2006) Norwegian and Danish embassies in Damascus set on fire during demonstrations against cartoons portraying Muslim Prophet Muhammad in a Danish newspaper
  • (2006) Thousands of people escaping the Israeli-Lebanese War fled into Syria
  • (2006) U.S. embassy in Damascus attacked
  • (2006) Iraq and Syria restored diplomatic relations
  • (2007) President Bashar al-Assad reelected president
  • (2007) Israel conducted aerial strike against site in northern Syria, claiming a nuclear facility was being constructed
  • (2007) Syria said it could not cope with refugees from Iraq, imposed tough visa restrictions
  • (2008) North Korea accused by U.S. of helping Syria build a secret nuclear reactor
  • (2008) President Assad announced 25% pay increase for public sector workers to offset increasing prices of food and heating oil
  • (2008) Syria established diplomatic relations with Lebanon
  • (2008) Explosion on outskirts of Damascus killed 17
  • (2008) Government ordered the closing of an American school and U. S. cultural center in Damascus after deadly raid by U.S. helicopters near Syria-Iraq border
  • (2010) U.S. posted first ambassador to Syria in five years
  • (2010) Sanctions against Syria renewed by U.S. saying Damascus supported terrorist groups and sought weapons of mass destruction
  • (2010) Full-face veils were banned from universities
  • (2011) Day of Dignity protest held in Damascus, demanded release of political prisoners, 35 arrested
  • (2011) Anti-government protests held in Syria
  • (2011) Army tanks entered Deraa, Banyas, Homs, Damascus to try to crush anti-government protests
  • (2011) 120 members of security forces were killed by armed gangs in the town of Jisr al-Shughour, more than 10,000 people fled to Turkey
  • (2011) President Assad sacked governor of province of Hama after mass demonstration
  • (2011) U.S. and allies called on President Assad to step down
  • (2011) Arab League voted to suspend Syria for failing to implement Arab peace plans, imposed sanctions
  • (2011) Suicide bombs outside security buildings in Damascus killed 44
  • (2012) Suicide bomber killed 26 in Damascus, 60 injured
  • (2012) Syrian troops bombarded rebels in city of Homs, hundreds killed
  • (2012) Bombs targeting security compounds in Aleppo killed 28, injured 235
  • (2012) Despite UN General Assembly call for end to violence, Syrian troops resumed heavy shelling of Homs
  • (2012) France, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Spain, Canada and Australia expelled senior Syrian diplomats in protest of killing citizens in Houla
  • (2012) Three top government officials were killed, many wounded in explosion at national security building in Damascus
  • (2012) Prime Minister Riyad Hijab defected
  • (2012) UN General Assembly resolution demanded resignation of President Assad
  • (2012) Over 100,000 Syrians fled the country in one month
  • (2012) Syrian mortar fire on Turkish border town killed five civilians, Turkey intercepted Syrian plane carrying arms from Russia; both countries banned each other's planes from air space
  • (2013) Israeli fighter jets struck Syrian convoy suspected of moving weapons to Lebanon for Hezbollah
  • (2013) More than 6,000 people died in March, the deadliest month since conflict began two years ago
  • (2013) Syrian planes bombed city of Raqqa after rebels seized control
  • (2013) U.S. and Great Britain suspected government forces used chemical weapons against rebels, demanded an investigation
  • (2013) Border city of Qusayr was recaptured by government and allied Hezbollah forces, over 1,000 civilians injured
  • (2013) Friends of Syria group (U.S., Great Britain, France, Germany, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Egypt and Jordan) agreed to provide all necessary materials and equipment to the rebels fighting President Assad
  • (2013) UN weapons inspectors concluded government used chemical weapons in attack in Damascus, 300 killed
  • (2013) More than two million Syrians were registered as refugees
  • (2013) UN Security Council adopted binding resolution on ridding chemical weapons in Syria; President Assad allowed international inspectors to begin the destruction of the chemical weapons
  • (2014) UN peace talks failed after Syrian authorities refused to discuss transitional government
  • (2014) Aid convoy bringing supplied into Homs was trapped after coming under fire
  • (2014) Syrian army and Hezbollah fighters seized the key rebel supply town of Yabroud
  • (2014) Iran sent 30,000 tons of food supplies to help deal with shortages
  • (2014) Shelling and fire fights between rebels and government forces in Aleppo killed 29 in 24 hours
  • (2014) Top rebel commander, Liwa al-Tawhid, died of wounds sustained in air strike in Aleppo
  • (2014) President Assad reelected to third term in office
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Syrian Arab Republic Photographs

Photos used are from public domain sources and from en.wikipedia.org