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Mongolia History Timeline

1200 - 1300
  • (1206) Genghis Khan assembled political and military council of Mongol and Turkic chiefs, handed down codification of laws and reforms
  • (1206 - 1263) Genghis Khan launched conquest campaign of Mongol tribes following their unification; Khan's sons and grandsons created the Mongol Empire, world's largest land empire
  • (1227) Genghis Khan died in his sleep
  • (1237 - 1238) Grandson of Genghis Khan, Batu Khan, invaded Russia
  • (1237 - 1240) Mongols conquered Russian lands
  • (1238) Mongols conquered Vladimir, Russia
  • (1240) Mongols destroyed Kiev
  • (1267 - 1368) The Khan empire imploded after weakening from disunity; Mongols were ousted out of Dadu (Beijing) by Ming troops
  • (1368 - 1600) Mongols were confined to their original homeland
  • (1380) Russian Prince Dmitry Donskoy defeated Golden Horde; Mongol capital of Karakorum destroyed by Ming troops
1600 - 1800
  • (1619) Several Mongol tribes defected their allegiance from Ligdan Khan to Manchu people
  • (1632) Ligdan evaded Manchus, conquered Gelug in Tibet (China)
  • (1634) Ligdan died at Qinghai Lake in Tibet
  • (1636) Manchu (Qing) empire conquered southern Mongols, created Inner Mongolia
  • (1691) Northern Mongols offered protection by Qing empire, created Outer Mongolia
  • (1727) Treaty of Kyakhta established western border between Russian and Manchu empires; Qing had dominion over Mongolia and Tuva
  • (1757 - 1758) Western Mongols (or Oirats) were virtually annihilated during Qing conquest of Dzungaria
  • (1800s) Qing Dynasty maintained control of Mongolia
1900s
  • (1906) Russian troops seized portions of Mongolia
  • (1907) Sinification (spread of Chinese culture) policies implemented by Qing government
  • (1911) Qing Dynasty fell; Outer Mongolia declared independence
  • (1911) Bogdo Khanate of Mongolia was proclaimed, Bogd Khan enthroned as the Great Khan (Emperor)
  • (1912) Russian Empire recognized independence of Mongolia
  • (1913) Tibet and Mongolia established treaty of mutual recognition and assistance
  • (1915) Russia, China and Mongolia signed treaty establishing China as sovereign over Mongolia
  • (1919) Chinese Army occupied Outer Mongolia
  • (1920) Mongolian People's Party founded by Mongolian revolutionaries
  • (1921) Russian Army drove Chinese out of Mongolia
  • (1921) Mongolian People's Government established
  • (1921) Mongolia declared independence from China
  • (1924) Mongolian People's Republic was proclaimed
  • (1928) Communist leader Khorloogiin Choibalsan rose to power
  • (1928 - 1932) "Rightists" in support of private enterprise were ousted, "Leftists" who wanted communes were ousted, counter-revolutionary uprising against confiscation of monastery property was suppressed
  • (1932) Collectivization failed, widespread uprisings took place
  • (1936) Mongol Prince Demchugdongrub formed Mongol Military government in Inner Mongolia
  • (1937) Mongol Military Government renamed Mongol United Autonomous Government
  • (1937) Stalinist purges began, monasteries were destroyed, more than 30,000 people, including lamas, were killed
  • (1937) Prime Minister Genden arrested and shot in Russia on charges of spying for Japan
  • (1937) Minister of War, Marshal Demid, was poisoned while on-board a Trans-Siberian train
  • (1939) In Battle of Halhyn Gol (Nomonhan), Mongolian and Soviet troops led by General Zhuko defeated Japanese and Manchukuo forces
  • (1939) Truce negotiated between Soviet Union and Japan
  • (1939) Khorloogiin Choibalsan appointed prime minister

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This page was last updated on April 7, 2017.