A steep, narrow escarpment runs along Madagascar's eastern coast, and the island's remaining tropical rainforest is located here. Along the west coast of the island swamps of mangroves give way to deep bays.
Moving inland, the central highlands are punctuated by grassy, deforested hills bordering rice-growing valleys.
At the north end of the island, the Tsaratanana Massif region is home to Madagascar's highest point, Maromokotro at 9,435 ft. (2,876 m).
Major rivers of Madagascar include the Mananara, Mangoro Sambirano, Mahajamba, Betsiboka, Mania, north and south Mahavavy, Mangoky, Onilahy, and the Ikopa; lakes unclude: Alaotra, Lake Kinkony and Lake Ihotry.
Madagascar's lowest point is the Indian Ocean at 0 m.